Monday, September 30, 2019

Capital Budgeting Process Essay

Capital budgeting is one of the most important financing tools used to examine expenditures and future projects in the capital spending and to budget for projects and all other analysis of spending for the future. This gives a heads up for healthcare managers to control their spending not only for capital expenditures but other spending such as payments and utilities for the organization. Capital budgeting is a large process that takes many different aspects to run. While capital budgeting is one of the most important aspects in healthcare finance, it is also a broad topic. A bond is a financing tool that is used when an issuer gives a statement to the payee for money and an interest payment is made to the payee at certain times. When an organization goes through the process of issuing a bond, they go through six major steps to accomplish bond issuing and determine whether this is the best decision at the time. Before issuing a bond, the issuer examines their capital plan and determines whether a bond is needed financially. Next, the issuer looks at the options for payees within bond issuance and is then examined by a credit rating agency to see if their credit score is high enough to issue a bond. After being examined by the credit rating agency, the bond itself is examined by the agency and after it is approved, the borrower is given terms and conditions to accept from the borrower. The last step that an organization must go through to issue is to sell the bond. These are sold to the payer where they give the money needed for the specific amount. While bonds are a great way to manage debt and become financially secure, leasing is another way that healthcare facilities manage their debt. Leasing refers to a contract where the lessee pays the owner rent or money for assets for a contracted time where the contract can be renewed and reinstated for longer term usage of those assets. Leasing is undertaken primarily because they don’t have to take care of the maintenance that comes with leasing assets. The owner of the machinery, facility, equipment or anything else that can be leased must continue routine maintenance saving the facility money on expenditure amounts within the spending area. If a facility is struggling for money, there are options such as bonds and leasing to decrease costs and increase the needed funds. There are two major types of leases that healthcare facilities must understand which are capital leases and operating leases. A capital lease, or financial lease, is used to lease assets for as long as the asset will remain available and running. The lessee is required by the contract of the lease to pay for the assets being used as long as the lease is in motion. Operating lease is almost the opposite of a capital lease. Operating leases are used for terms that are usually breakable and shorter than the assets given period of operation. Short term borrowing is a term used to describe when a company is in debt for a term of one year or less. These debts are usually paid back in that year and are usually short term bank loans that are used to finance a company. Long term financing is the exact opposite of a short term loan. It is used when a company needs to be financed for longer than one year or will not be paid back within that year. It can be from a single loan or multiple loans and is used when there are no plans or availability to have these loans paid back within the year. Equity financing sources for nonprofit organizations include internally generated funds, philanthropy, and government grants. These are used to finance and support organizations that are non profit and that help those in need. Today, more and more organizations are becoming nonprofit and are used by their own money, grants and loans and stocks and bonds. These are all primary sources for nonprofit organizations to keep serving communities in the healthcare world. Capital Budgeting process does occur in several extensive stages that include many different objectives for projects and programs for healthcare organizations. These generally include expenditures and the budget that comes along with those steps. These are used so that there are different views of the budget and what needs to be completed and examined in order to see the direction headed. Three discounted cash flow methods that are used include net present value, profitability index and equivalent annual cost. Net present value is the amount of the investment compared to incomes after the discount has been applied. (Cleverley, 529). The profitability is the ratio of the NPV and investment costs. (Cleverley, 533). This is used to compare rates of return on capital budgeting. Finally, the equivalent annual cost is the spending of the project compared to the capital spending and the operation costs when not leased but fully owned.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Kantian Ethics Essay

Immanuel Kant’s moral theory has become the heart of deontological ethics. It differentiates itself by looking at morality as an extension of man’s reason. Unlike other ethical theories, the individual is seen as the primary actor of all moral decisions. His autonomy, his will is seen as the locust of ethical judgment. For Kant in order for an act to be considered morally worthy it has to be done out of duty. From my understanding of Kant, when we talk of duty it is something which our reason recognizes as a manifestation of a universal law, one which he/she cannot deny. Doing the right thing is not about whether or not the outcome might be gauged to be positive, or that because an individual â€Å"feels† that he/she must perform a particular act rather she â€Å"knows† that it is his/her duty. In order to be ethically praiseworthy, the person must ask himself, â€Å"Am â€Å"I† the one who is deciding and acting? † The morality of Kant builds on the want of the philosopher to describe and order an ethical life that is centered on the rational faculty of man, his reason. It is the case that in a lot of cases people tend to look at the possible consequences of an action in judging whether or not what they’re about to do is moral or not. At times we act out of good intentions, helping others, sharing, et al. because we feel that it’s the good thing to do. Unfortunately, Kant won’t agree with our ways. In fact, he would even say that such actions have no moral worth. For Kant, the important thing is our obligation to do something, feelings, intentions, and consequences may gain the approval of others but they are too whimsical. There is for him an a priori (before reason) law which tells us what ought to be done. As rational beings we are dignified with our ability to discern this law, much more, we are capable of making it (Kremling, n. d. ). To act contrary to what our reason dictates, is choosing to act in heteronomy, a big no-no for Immanuel Kant because it belittles the individual, the latter produces as a result, acts that are empty. If Kantian Morality sounds a bit of feel-good emotions, intentions, and happy thoughts, then I think we’re on the right track. Ethics in terms of Kant is not about making another person smile; it’s not about calculating how many people you could help out by doing something. At the end of the day, acting on such things are all half-chances, there is no guarantee that by helping someone out would be good, there’s no assurance that if you think of the number of people who would benefit, it means you won’t harm others. Autonomy plays a central role in the moral theory of Kant, in such a way that a man must in his own volition choose to legislate a universal law and act in accordance to it. How does one determine which acts are in accordance with good will per se and is thus uninversalizable? For Kant all actions can be stated as a maxim, a person as an autonomous person creates the maxim but at the same time has to make sure that it is a principle that every rational being can agree to with no exceptions. This is the categorical imperative, contrary to the hypothetical imperative which is stated as an If-then. I. e. If I want to pass this class then I have to study; the Categorical Imperative claims a universal statement that is true at all times (. When a person acts out of duty the latter is presumed to have passed the categorical maxim put forward to state the action: In layman’s terms we could state the maxim as a question first, i. e. can I will to cheat on an exam, in such a way that others would as a whole can will to do so? There are categorical imperatives that have been formulated by Kant as the most basic of ethical requirements, like for example, Lying is an act that for him will never become morally justifiable, we must always follow the imperative to never use a person but always as an end (Hillar, 2003). We again see here the theme of dignity and respect, man and his reason is central in the ethical works of Kant. Even if for example in doing an act we would do so for the good of the majority, it would still not be valid if a minority would be sacrificed along the way. We do something because it ought to be done as determined by our reason and verified through the maxim which we test and attempt to put as a categorical imperative; the latter could be thought of as the fixed rules that govern how we as rational agents act. The main criticisms to be raised with regards to other ethical theories are founded on the assumptions of Kant regarding the fulfillment of moral obligation for the sake of good in itself. Utilitarianism takes as a central part of its tenets, the concept of summum bonum (greatest good for the greatest number). If we look at this ethical formulation we shall see that it would contradict with the notion of Kant that Human Being should always be considered ends never as a means, not even for the greatest number. Problem may also arise in the altruistic claims of utilitarian moralizing. One ought not to pursue something out of happiness or other virtues like Aristotle’s notion of the good man as the man of mean and virtues. This would not qualify for Kant as enough grounds to pursue good, because as he had mentioned in the groundings, prior to the good is the good will with which there is no qualification (Johnson, 2004). If one is an individualist, he might more likely be pleased with the ethical prescriptions of Kant. I personally find strength in his moral philosophy in finding support for the need to protect certain inalienable rights. In focusing on a moral law, his theory is not vulnerable to the attacks of situational morality but rather focuses on the man as a rational being and a moral agent, whose will is in a sense the will of all (Baron, 1995). There is stability and consistency in Kant’s moral philosophy by centering on the autonomy of all individuals under the precept that when it all boils down to it, man shares a common reason and will that would allow them to determine what is right from wrong. On the other hand I think that there are certain things in life wherein following the rules set through categorical imperatives would not suffice. There are moral dilemmas wherein human lives are hanged in the balance. Although reason can help us in making our decisions, the moral duties of Kant can only go so far. I am left to wonder how a person could be satisfied with himself in pointing the whereabouts of innocent African-Americans to deranged members of the Ku Klux Clan who are vowing to kill them; on the basis of fulfilling his moral duty of always telling the truth. Take note, in Kant’s philosophy, there is no hierarchy of duties, one has to fulfill them all, regardless of the outcome. References: Baron, Marcia, 1995, Kantian Ethics Almost Without Apology Cornell: Cornell U. P. Hillar, Marian, 2003, Kant’s Moral Axioms, Retrieved August 3, 2007 from Socinian. org: http://www. socinian. org/kant. html Johnson, Robert, 2004, Kant’s Moral Philosophy, Retrieved August 4, 2007 from Stanford http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Challenges to foster a national identity during the Meiji restoration period.

There was a small island in the south of Japan where the Japanese imported goods from the Dutch, Chinese, and Korean nations, but there was little or no trade with any other country. Thus, the country of Japan was closed to outside influences, partly to maintain political domination control and to prevent the foreigners from stealing their gunpowder. In the mid 1860’s an American diplomatic fleet of steam powered battleships arrived and insisted upon the opening of Japanese trade with the US. The feudal Shogun government, however apprehensive of the threat to their control over the people of Japan, had no choice but to allow trade with the US. This opened the door for international trade and relations with the world beyond Japan for the first time in hundreds of years. I 1868, the shogun(the military leader) was forced to step down and the sixteen year old Emperor Meiji was â€Å"restored ,† so that Japan might catch up military with the West. There was the end of a relatively stable number of years of Shogun government called the Edo period. During this period a primary Shogunate (military dictatorship) was essentially running the government and the various different Samurai clans of the country were managed by this primary Shogunate, which was based in Edo (the city now known as Tokyo). Thankfully this particular military dictatorship was a relatively noble group monetarily, but their own noble and self-sacrificing way was actually part of what allowed the imperial family to take over the government of Japan at this rather pivotal moment. Essentially Meiji was the heir son of the imperial family and so those who stood to benefit from him being placed in as leader of the country helped to make it happen. The leadership of the Shogunate in Edo was handed over rather effortlessly as the Shogunate was apparently duped by Meiji and his supporters. Meiji’s primary supporters, of course, were leaders of some of the primary opposition to the Shogunate. This assertion of the leadership of an imperialistic family was known as the â€Å"Meiji Restoration†, yet it was not really a restoration as there had apparently never been a truly united Japan ruled in such a way before. Suddenly Meiji took over and any Samurai opposition to the changes was essentially stopped with force until the Samurai class was finally outlawed. The Meiji constitution was written as part of this â€Å"restoration† and basically fabricated a national identity for Japan. It also conveniently fabricated a nationalistic mythology which attempted to falsely present Meiji and his family as Shinto divinity. The result was a fanatical religious theocracy with a false history and deluded national patriotism. This ultimately led to the sad events of WWII and the immense disgrace of the Japanese people. It was essentially a nation-wide cult fabricated by politicians. Rationale: Westernisation influence in Japan during the Meiji Restoration Period: Political influence: In 1889, a constitution was promulgated which established a parliamentary government but left it accountable to the emperor rather than to the people. Administrative power was centralized in a national bureaucracy, which also ruled in the name of the emperor. There as a change in the feudal system. The classes were declared equal, so that samurai and their lords lost their feudal privileges, while the role of merchants began to be respected. Japan received its first European style constitution in 1889. A parliament, the Diet was established while the emperor kept sovereignty: he stood at the top of the army, navy, executive and legislative power. The ruling clique, however, kept on holding the actual power, and the able and intelligent emperor Meiji agreed with most of their actions. Political parties did not yet gain real power due to the lack of unity among their members. Economic influence: In order to transform the agrarian economy of Tokugawa Japan into a developed industrial one, many Japanese scholars were sent abroad to study Western science and languages and businesses, while foreign experts taught in Japan. The progression and improvements in education would boost the economy because of the increase in knowledge and skills. Industrialization created more importance on businesses and the prospering of them, than the farming and agrarian economy. After means of large governmental investments, the transportation and communication network in Japan were improved. The government also directly supported the prospering of businesses and industries, especially the large and powerful family businesses called zaibatsu. The large expenditures led to a financial crisis in the middle of the 1880s which was followed by a reform of the currency system and the establishment of the Bank of Japan. Thus, Japan’s economic grew tremendously during the Meiji restoration period. Education influence: A universal education was implemented. The education system was reformed after the French and later after the German system. Among those reforms was the introduction of compulsory education. Compulsory public education was introduced both to teach the skills needed for the new nation and to inculcate values of citizenship in all Japanese. This means that the money is going towards education, which goes to the people, and creates more capital, because of more knowledge. Military influence: There was a high priority for Japan in an era of European and American imperialism. Universal conscription was introduced, and a new national army modelled after the Prussian force was established, and a navy after the British force was established. Arts influence: In 1876, the government opened the Technical Fine Arts School (Kobu Bijutsu Gakko) and invited the architect Giovanni Cappelletti (d. ca. 1885), the sculptor Vincenzo Ragusa (1841–1928), and the painter Antonio Fontanesi (1818–1882), who was deeply influenced by the Barbizon school, to teach its students in Western techniques and media. Fontanesi’s students Yamamoto Hosui (1850–1906), Kuroda Seiki (1866–1924), and Asai Chu (1856–1907) all later travelled to Europe to study academic painting, and are looked upon today as the Meiji period’s greatest producers of Western style paintings (yoga). On the other hand, the government took the acquisition of Western art techniques as a means of fostering industrial development, as opposed to promoting an appreciation of Western aesthetics or art theory. This was to let the young Japanese gain appreciation for the potentially important role of the museum in society, and the establishment of Japan ’s first public museum at Yushima Seido Confucian shrine. Conder taught at the University of Technology (Kobu Daigakko). His students Tatsuno Kingo (1854–1911), Katayama Tokuma (1853–1917), and Sone Tatsuzo (1853–1937) were responsible for many of the major architectural monuments during the Meiji period. Education system in Japan during the Meiji Restoration period: School system reform: The reform of the school system has contributed the most to the enlightenment of the Japanese people. By the 1906, the school attendance was as high as 95%, which Japan boosted the one of the highest literacy rates in the world. The resorted Imperial government immediately realised the importance of universal education to the nation’s pursuit of modernisation and progress of Japan. Gakusei, a education system was implemented in the 1872 and the promulgation of the Imperial Rescript on education in the 1890, these laid the foundation for modern education system in Japan. The school system was then modelled after the westernisation. Universities established: Universities as well as technical and professional schools were established to promote higher education to meet the demands of a labour force. Except for the terakoya, small regional schools providing basic education, most traditional schools from the Edo period were almost exclusively reserved to boys belonging to the samurai class. Despite this, the level of literacy in the late Edo period was remarkably high, which no doubt paved the way for the Meiji educational reforms. Primary school: The nationalisation of the education system made primary school compulsory for both boys and girls. At first, the attendance was very low. However, after tuition was abolished for elementary schools in 1900, then there was an increase in attendance. Many things in the school was influenced by the westerners. Firstly, the school was furnished western-style were built throughout the Japan. Secondly, the school curriculum was also based on western models. This includes history, science, geography and arithmetic. Schools also continued to give moral instruction based on Confucian tradition, which encouraged patriotic loyalty and filial piety. Games like sugoroku, the New Year’s game, were used to introduce young children to the scripts in a fun way. The sugoroku board shown here illustrates the different steps a student must follow before earning a degree. Education in the Empire of Japan was a high priority for the government, as the leadership of the early Meiji government realized the critical need for universal public education in its drive to modernize and westernize Japan. Overseas missions such as the Iwakura mission were sent abroad to study the education systems of leading Western countries. After 1868 new leadership set Japan on a rapid course of modernization. The Meiji leaders established a public education system to help Japan catch up with the West and form a modern nation. Missions like the Iwakura mission were sent abroad to study the education systems of leading Western countries. They returned with the ideas of decentralization, local school boards, and teacher autonomy. Such ideas and ambitious initial plans, however, proved very difficult to carry out. After some trial and error, a new national education system emerged. As an indication of its success, elementary school enrollments climbed from about 40 or 50 percent of the school-age population in the 1870s to more than 90 percent by 1900, despite strong public protest, especially against school fees. By the 1890s, after earlier intensive preoccupation with Western, particularly United States, educational ideas, a much more conservative and traditional orientation evolved. Confucian precepts were stressed, especially those concerning the hierarchical nature of human relations, service to the new state, the pursuit of learning, and morality. These ideals, embodied in the 1890 Imperial Rescript on Education, along with highly centralized government control over education, largely guided Japanese education until the end of World War II. There are two different perspective to the modernization of Japan. Some Japanese think that it is a chance to achieve collective, national glory. However, others do not really encourage modernization. Change to them meant danger, decadence and loss of moral virtues. They fear of three areas: gender disorder, cultural concern and political disorders. Firstly, for the gender anarchy, the Japanese banned women from adopting short hairstyle in the 1872. It emerged again when the government sharply restricted women’s political activity in 18890. However, during the Meiji period, the primary duty of the women was to serve the twin roles of good wife and wise mother was not purely reactionary or restrictive. During the Meiji formulation, wise women needed schooling. This was to ensure that the mother raises the children well in a new era, thus the mother needs to be literate. They had to know something about the world beyond the home. â€Å"Good mother, wise mother† was aggressively promoted by the Japanese government that the women have to be educated. The imperial institution took part in the project to prescribe new roles of women for men. The imperial signaled that men should have western haircuts by adopting that style of him. While the hair of the women should be kept long and braided up. The women’s appeara nce was also influenced by the westerners. the westernized facial appearance encourages the women to stop shaving their eye brown and blackening their teeth. However, it was later changed with support from the throne in the face of western examples and criticisms. Secondly, the Japanese fear of political disorder. They fear that a restless populace might challenge their political control which led to the decision for a conservative constitution. It inspires for a call for scarification for the state in Imperial Rescript. It also inspired a spark for military drills in school. Thirdly, it is the open of the port to the outside world. Japanese fear that people from across the sea would poison the soul of the Japan. They fear that they would influence the Japanese or to convert them into Christianity and demolish their true identity and cultural, they fear the lost of their cultural. Due to the rapid modernization and adapting many things from the westerners, they start to fear that there is no unique identity of Japan. Thus a magazine â€Å" The Japanese† was published. The writer thinks that the nation followed a path towards the so-called civilized. They feared that it might â€Å"forfeit our nation national character and destroy all the elements in References: Websites: http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2130.html 21/4/11 , on the western influence on Japan. http://www.travel-to-japan.com/the-meiji-restoration/ (21/4/11), the background of Meiji Period. http://www.museevirtuel-virtualmuseum.ca/edu/ViewLoitLo.do;jsessionid=AA30BECF533CBA0ECFF8450FC71FF6C1?method=previewlang=ENid=12991 23/4/11, education system during the Meiji period. Challenges to foster a national identity during the Meiji restoration period. There was a small island in the south of Japan where the Japanese imported goods from the Dutch, Chinese, and Korean nations, but there was little or no trade with any other country. Thus, the country of Japan was closed to outside influences, partly to maintain political domination control and to prevent the foreigners from stealing their gunpowder. In the mid 1860’s an American diplomatic fleet of steam powered battleships arrived and insisted upon the opening of Japanese trade with the US. The feudal Shogun government, however apprehensive of the threat to their control over the people of Japan, had no choice but to allow trade with the US. This opened the door for international trade and relations with the world beyond Japan for the first time in hundreds of years. I 1868, the shogun(the military leader) was forced to step down and the sixteen year old Emperor Meiji was â€Å"restored ,† so that Japan might catch up military with the West. There was the end of a relatively stable number of years of Shogun government called the Edo period. During this period a primary Shogunate (military dictatorship) was essentially running the government and the various different Samurai clans of the country were managed by this primary Shogunate, which was based in Edo (the city now known as Tokyo). Thankfully this particular military dictatorship was a relatively noble group monetarily, but their own noble and self-sacrificing way was actually part of what allowed the imperial family to take over the government of Japan at this rather pivotal moment. Essentially Meiji was the heir son of the imperial family and so those who stood to benefit from him being placed in as leader of the country helped to make it happen. The leadership of the Shogunate in Edo was handed over rather effortlessly as the Shogunate was apparently duped by Meiji and his supporters. Meiji’s primary supporters, of course, were leaders of some of the primary opposition to the Shogunate. This assertion of the leadership of an imperialistic family was known as the â€Å"Meiji Restoration†, yet it was not really a restoration as there had apparently never been a truly united Japan ruled in such a way before. Suddenly Meiji took over and any Samurai opposition to the changes was essentially stopped with force until the Samurai class was finally outlawed. The Meiji constitution was written as part of this â€Å"restoration† and basically fabricated a national identity for Japan. It also conveniently fabricated a nationalistic mythology which attempted to falsely present Meiji and his family as Shinto divinity. The result was a fanatical religious theocracy with a false history and deluded national patriotism. This ultimately led to the sad events of WWII and the immense disgrace of the Japanese people. It was essentially a nation-wide cult fabricated by politicians. Rationale: Westernisation influence in Japan during the Meiji Restoration Period: Political influence: In 1889, a constitution was promulgated which established a parliamentary government but left it accountable to the emperor rather than to the people. Administrative power was centralized in a national bureaucracy, which also ruled in the name of the emperor. There as a change in the feudal system. The classes were declared equal, so that samurai and their lords lost their feudal privileges, while the role of merchants began to be respected. Japan received its first European style constitution in 1889. A parliament, the Diet was established while the emperor kept sovereignty: he stood at the top of the army, navy, executive and legislative power. The ruling clique, however, kept on holding the actual power, and the able and intelligent emperor Meiji agreed with most of their actions. Political parties did not yet gain real power due to the lack of unity among their members. Economic influence: In order to transform the agrarian economy of Tokugawa Japan into a developed industrial one, many Japanese scholars were sent abroad to study Western science and languages and businesses, while foreign experts taught in Japan. The progression and improvements in education would boost the economy because of the increase in knowledge and skills. Industrialization created more importance on businesses and the prospering of them, than the farming and agrarian economy. After means of large governmental investments, the transportation and communication network in Japan were improved. The government also directly supported the prospering of businesses and industries, especially the large and powerful family businesses called zaibatsu. The large expenditures led to a financial crisis in the middle of the 1880s which was followed by a reform of the currency system and the establishment of the Bank of Japan. Thus, Japan’s economic grew tremendously during the Meiji restoration period. Education influence: A universal education was implemented. The education system was reformed after the French and later after the German system. Among those reforms was the introduction of compulsory education. Compulsory public education was introduced both to teach the skills needed for the new nation and to inculcate values of citizenship in all Japanese. This means that the money is going towards education, which goes to the people, and creates more capital, because of more knowledge. Military influence: There was a high priority for Japan in an era of European and American imperialism. Universal conscription was introduced, and a new national army modelled after the Prussian force was established, and a navy after the British force was established. Arts influence: In 1876, the government opened the Technical Fine Arts School (Kobu Bijutsu Gakko) and invited the architect Giovanni Cappelletti (d. ca. 1885), the sculptor Vincenzo Ragusa (1841–1928), and the painter Antonio Fontanesi (1818–1882), who was deeply influenced by the Barbizon school, to teach its students in Western techniques and media. Fontanesi’s students Yamamoto Hosui (1850–1906), Kuroda Seiki (1866–1924), and Asai Chu (1856–1907) all later travelled to Europe to study academic painting, and are looked upon today as the Meiji period’s greatest producers of Western style paintings (yoga). On the other hand, the government took the acquisition of Western art techniques as a means of fostering industrial development, as opposed to promoting an appreciation of Western aesthetics or art theory. This was to let the young Japanese gain appreciation for the potentially important role of the museum in society, and the establishment of Japan ’s first public museum at Yushima Seido Confucian shrine. Conder taught at the University of Technology (Kobu Daigakko). His students Tatsuno Kingo (1854–1911), Katayama Tokuma (1853–1917), and Sone Tatsuzo (1853–1937) were responsible for many of the major architectural monuments during the Meiji period. Education system in Japan during the Meiji Restoration period: School system reform: The reform of the school system has contributed the most to the enlightenment of the Japanese people. By the 1906, the school attendance was as high as 95%, which Japan boosted the one of the highest literacy rates in the world. The resorted Imperial government immediately realised the importance of universal education to the nation’s pursuit of modernisation and progress of Japan. Gakusei, a education system was implemented in the 1872 and the promulgation of the Imperial Rescript on education in the 1890, these laid the foundation for modern education system in Japan. The school system was then modelled after the westernisation. Universities established: Universities as well as technical and professional schools were established to promote higher education to meet the demands of a labour force. Except for the terakoya, small regional schools providing basic education, most traditional schools from the Edo period were almost exclusively reserved to boys belonging to the samurai class. Despite this, the level of literacy in the late Edo period was remarkably high, which no doubt paved the way for the Meiji educational reforms. Primary school: The nationalisation of the education system made primary school compulsory for both boys and girls. At first, the attendance was very low. However, after tuition was abolished for elementary schools in 1900, then there was an increase in attendance. Many things in the school was influenced by the westerners. Firstly, the school was furnished western-style were built throughout the Japan. Secondly, the school curriculum was also based on western models. This includes history, science, geography and arithmetic. Schools also continued to give moral instruction based on Confucian tradition, which encouraged patriotic loyalty and filial piety. Games like sugoroku, the New Year’s game, were used to introduce young children to the scripts in a fun way. The sugoroku board shown here illustrates the different steps a student must follow before earning a degree. Education in the Empire of Japan was a high priority for the government, as the leadership of the early Meiji government realized the critical need for universal public education in its drive to modernize and westernize Japan. Overseas missions such as the Iwakura mission were sent abroad to study the education systems of leading Western countries. After 1868 new leadership set Japan on a rapid course of modernization. The Meiji leaders established a public education system to help Japan catch up with the West and form a modern nation. Missions like the Iwakura mission were sent abroad to study the education systems of leading Western countries. They returned with the ideas of decentralization, local school boards, and teacher autonomy. Such ideas and ambitious initial plans, however, proved very difficult to carry out. After some trial and error, a new national education system emerged. As an indication of its success, elementary school enrollments climbed from about 40 or 50 percent of the school-age population in the 1870s to more than 90 percent by 1900, despite strong public protest, especially against school fees. By the 1890s, after earlier intensive preoccupation with Western, particularly United States, educational ideas, a much more conservative and traditional orientation evolved. Confucian precepts were stressed, especially those concerning the hierarchical nature of human relations, service to the new state, the pursuit of learning, and morality. These ideals, embodied in the 1890 Imperial Rescript on Education, along with highly centralized government control over education, largely guided Japanese education until the end of World War II. There are two different perspective to the modernization of Japan. Some Japanese think that it is a chance to achieve collective, national glory. However, others do not really encourage modernization. Change to them meant danger, decadence and loss of moral virtues. They fear of three areas: gender disorder, cultural concern and political disorders. Firstly, for the gender anarchy, the Japanese banned women from adopting short hairstyle in the 1872. It emerged again when the government sharply restricted women’s political activity in 18890. However, during the Meiji period, the primary duty of the women was to serve the twin roles of good wife and wise mother was not purely reactionary or restrictive. During the Meiji formulation, wise women needed schooling. This was to ensure that the mother raises the children well in a new era, thus the mother needs to be literate. They had to know something about the world beyond the home. â€Å"Good mother, wise mother† was aggressively promoted by the Japanese government that the women have to be educated. The imperial institution took part in the project to prescribe new roles of women for men. The imperial signaled that men should have western haircuts by adopting that style of him. While the hair of the women should be kept long and braided up. The women’s appeara nce was also influenced by the westerners. the westernized facial appearance encourages the women to stop shaving their eye brown and blackening their teeth. However, it was later changed with support from the throne in the face of western examples and criticisms. Secondly, the Japanese fear of political disorder. They fear that a restless populace might challenge their political control which led to the decision for a conservative constitution. It inspires for a call for scarification for the state in Imperial Rescript. It also inspired a spark for military drills in school. Thirdly, it is the open of the port to the outside world. Japanese fear that people from across the sea would poison the soul of the Japan. They fear that they would influence the Japanese or to convert them into Christianity and demolish their true identity and cultural, they fear the lost of their cultural. Due to the rapid modernization and adapting many things from the westerners, they start to fear that there is no unique identity of Japan. Thus a magazine â€Å" The Japanese† was published. The writer thinks that the nation followed a path towards the so-called civilized. They feared that it might â€Å"forfeit our nation national character and destroy all the elements in References: Websites: http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2130.html 21/4/11 , on the western influence on Japan. http://www.travel-to-japan.com/the-meiji-restoration/ (21/4/11), the background of Meiji Period. http://www.museevirtuel-virtualmuseum.ca/edu/ViewLoitLo.do;jsessionid=AA30BECF533CBA0ECFF8450FC71FF6C1?method=previewlang=ENid=12991 23/4/11, education system during the Meiji period.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Identifying Challenges Within Institutional Structures Research Paper

Identifying Challenges Within Institutional Structures - Research Paper Example This is owing to the fact that it contributes to the external and external structures that impact on leadership. From a research conducted by qualified faculty developers there are three setbacks facing faculty development in universities and colleges (Kezar, 2005). First, there is the dynamic nature of the student community, the dynamic professoriate and the dynamic nature of scholarships, learning and teaching (Kezar, 2005). In the contemporary world, professors are facing increasing challenges in their roles and responsibilities that will need them to take part in a continuous faculty development. This poses a challenge for faculty development (Darling-Hammond, 2005). There is need for faculty developers in universities to identify the growing roles as one of the challenges facing the faculty in the modern times. The established tasks are under growing pressure to stay abreast with the changes in research and teaching (Kezar, 2005). Therefore, for example, the new members of the faculty may need to polish their skills in offering online courses as well as in grant-writing. Although the current members of the faculty in various universities are seasoned, they are required to keep up with new specialties in their areas of specialization (Seaman, 2009). Leaders are therefore challenged with the responsibility of proving the professorate with new learning opportunities. The leadership is faced with the task of handling the changing faculty roles and maintaining a balance in life and work. It was found that finding balance in the diverse responsibilities is a major area of concern throughout various stages in the lecturers’ career. It is difficult for new members of the faculty to be recognized as a scholar or campus citizen. The members of the faculty care about how they attain the balance as they deal with the professional and personal commitments. Finding balance has proven to be a key issue facing leadership in the

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Writing assignments Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Writing assignments - Assignment Example There must be relevance in statistical analysis. The researcher should also guard against predisposition of the analytic result by investigators. Always remain current in dynamically evolving statistical methodology. The subject matter expertise and adequate statistical is both applied to any planned study. Ensure that methodologies that are used are suitable to the data and to obtaining results that are valid. The statistics given are unreliable because each study should be based on a very competent understanding of the issues in the subject matter and also the statistical protocol that are defined clearly but then this discussion did not meet that. The methods used were ancient hence the data received cannot be proved valid. The statistical methodology of yesterday cannot be accepted today. The criterion of getting expertise in statistics and the subject matter if not met then it means that the results are not valid. I rate the statistics given as

The growth of China 2008 to 2013 impact on the U.S. economy Research Paper

The growth of China 2008 to 2013 impact on the U.S. economy - Research Paper Example With the main aim of ensuring recovery after the recession of 2008, the country has managed to record tremendous growth, particularly in the gross domestic product (GDP), which is used by its leaders in the benchmarking of the economy’s performance. In this study, I seek to address the concept of economic growth in China from a macroeconomic point of view, and how the same impacts on the US economy from a macroeconomic point of view (Chuang & Thomas, 2010; Morrison, 2013). The economy of China has been considered as one of the fastest growing economies in the world taking into consideration its real annual gross domestic product (GDP) that has averagely grown to 10% in the year 2013. As such, China is regarded as a main global power in trade. The other economic achievements in China that make its economy to be growing faster is that fact that it is the largest manufacturer, the largest trading economy, the second-largest foreign direct investment (FDI) destination and the only country holding the largest number of foreign exchange reserves (Calhoun & Derluguian, 2011). Within a span of only three decades beginning the year 1979, the rapidness in the economic rise of China can be considered as one of the major and the greatest success stories economically. However, this rating cannot be merited to that of the U.S.A considering that it has a lower per capita value as compared to the US (Gordon, 2008). However, in the year 2008, China’s economic growth was adversely affected by the recession considering that significant declines were noted in its exports, FDI inflows and imports. Consequently, there was a slowed growth in the country’s GDP and a large number of the working population lost their jobs through forced retrenchments and early retirements. From the angle of macroeconomics, it can be said that the recession affected households, businesses and the public

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Cinnamon Chex Retailing Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Cinnamon Chex Retailing - Research Paper Example Manufactures, warehouses, and transporters maintain a timely delivery of products to their consumers. This paper explore the Cinnamon Chex; a food product popular in United States. It will endeavor to trace the production of Cinnamon Chex, its natural ingredients, and added ingredients. The paper further seeks to discuss supply chain, processing, delivery, and SWOT analysis. Finally, it will give the relevant recommendations about the product to consumers. Cinnamon Chex is a product taken as breakfast by many people. This food appears in a cereal meal that is highly nutritious (Crocker 49).Cinnamon Chex contains plant nutrients, mineral salts, and fiber. It is a whole grain meal. Cinnamon consumers have little information about its natural source. Cinnamon comes from the inner bark of several trees. These trees belong to genus cinnamonium that has a wide range of use in savory and sweet foods (131). The trees grow naturally in South East Asia, such as Bangladesh, and Sumatra. Cinnamo n cultivation takes two years to mature. After full maturity, drying of branches takes place subsequent removal of the rough, wooden outer barks through a scrapping process (58). Drying of Inner barks takes four hours in an ideal dry, warm environment. Use of wet surfaces promotes growth of pests. This form of agriculture is an export oriented. Exportation of cinnamon promotes foreign exchange, which creates trade links amongst nations. Cinnamon is a spice that enhances marketability of the products that utilize it in their preparation (121). To make it appealing to the consumer to buy this product, incorporation of various products is desirable. Some of these products include salted whole almonds, brown sugar, chopped dry apples, and vanilla yogurt-covered raisins. The major nutrients in Cinnamon Chex include proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibers, and mineral salts. To prepare a sixteen -serving Cinnamon Chex, the recipe contains, one cup chopped apple, and two tablespoons ligh t corn syrup. It also has half a cup of vanilla yogurt covered-resins, one table spoon of ground cinnamon, a third cup of packed brown sugar, and five cups of wheat Chex. Margarine is also part of ingredients in a quarter -cup portion (243). Timely manufacturing and delivery of Cinnamon Chex is essential. Manufactures should observe safety issues. All practices involved in the processing must be in accordance with Food and Drug Act. Ignorance to maintain high health standards means endangering lives of consumers. It also risks the Cinnamon Chex sales because of the probability of closure of the manufacturing companies (79). Food and Drug Act has mandate to issue orders for immediate termination of services for the manufacturing company that violates Food and Drug Act. Traceability of Cinnamon Chex is an essential tool in a business venture. This tool ensures proper management of inputs and outputs, which results into major improvements in terms of quality and efficiency. A mechanism such as external auditing and advice on safety plays a big role to stabilize depreciating quality of Cinnamon Chex product. Cinnamon Chex retailers employ a standardized system of traceability. This enables an easy trace back of recent sales through immediate buyers. Traceability helps to restore of company’s reputation. However, it is not always perfect in food. Cinnamon Chex retailers are no exception. SWOT analysis endeavors to evaluate Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Building Watson Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Building Watson - Case Study Example It would be advisable to further the research in order to achieve the benefits in that future. Although able to process information much faster, innately, than a human being it would be perceived to have an advantage, and yet it gave a completely inaccurate answer to a question posed, which means that there is still something lacking in the decision making skills as to when to answer. If a human being is not certain of an answer they would likely decline to offer an answer; however, Watson opted to answer and the answer delivered with low artificial intellectual certainty was absolutely wrong. Ultimately, Watson sets precedent and encourages the further study and investment in the research and development of these technologies. The unpredictability and sense of choice that human beings possess is still something that cannot be achieved synthetically (Shih, 2012). Computers possess none of the emotional motivations of humanity, at least not in this case or technology level, these infl uences create the ethical, logical, and moral uses of our knowledge and thought. There is a dynamic nature to human thought, organic thought, which has yet to be captured within the programming of artificial intelligence and computer technologies. ... on is a sophisticated computer and computers are beneficial for their ability to compute, calculate, retrieve, and analyze data at incredible speeds, far faster than a human brain (Shih, 2012).A trivia challenge of, both, common knowledge and specialized knowledge should be an ideal task for a computer to do decidedly well, ideally, better than any human opponent. However, there are a number of personality and psychological traits possessed by human beings that are completely irrelevant to computer intelligence, including compulsive liars to truth tellers and fair players and misdirecting ones. These traits are just a few, of what are easily, thousands of possible emotional, mental, and behavioral responses attributable to human beings; none of which are shared by artificial intelligence (Shih, 2012).Given these parameters, can a computer win a match of not only knowledge but, also, of strategy and skilled game play? Although, throughout the course of the game, Watson did quite well at answering many questions correctly, however when it gave one particular inaccurate answer that was not just wrong, it was unbelievably wrong. When asked to name the U.S. state had their largest airport named after a WWII hero and their largest city named after a WWII battle, Watson answered, â€Å"Toronto† (Shih, 2012). Toronto is not a U.S. city, in the United States at all, and has absolutely nothing to do with the questions involving WWII namesakes; the degree of wrong was surprising to designers and proved that greater study will need to be done to determine why it chose an answer so obviously incorrect and then choosing to share that answer with any â€Å"programming† common sense that allowed to think that the answer could be correct would be extremely important. Watson was

Monday, September 23, 2019

Overrepresentation of aboriginal youth in the canadian criminal Thesis

Overrepresentation of aboriginal youth in the canadian criminal justice system - Thesis Example uths depend on social aid, statistics indicate that on-reserve Aboriginal individuals that rely relying on social assistance comprise of 35% of the entire Aboriginal youths; this is a high rate in relation to the 5% of the Canadian population which depends on social support (Sprott and Doob 28). This statistic is a direct reflection of the high levels of on-reserve Aboriginal youths that depend on the social securities. This describes the high crime rates experienced among the on-reserve Aboriginal youth in relation to the off-reserve aboriginal youth. This aspect continues to contribute to the overrepresentation of the Aboriginal youths in the Canadian Criminal Justice System. In addition, there is a likelihood of readmitting an aboriginal youth-delinquent to a federal custody more than a non-Aboriginal youth. The overrepresentation of the Aboriginal youths is also reinforced by the fact there have been inadequate improvement of the general circumstances of the indigenous youths in the past two decades despite various partnerships, reports, reviews and various strategies. As a result, Canada continues to witness the overrepresentation of the Canadian Criminal Justice System. Additionally, the growth rate of the aboriginal population has grown significantly in relation to that of the non-Aboriginal between 1995 and 2006 (Munch 41). This reflects the current high number of the Aboriginal youths experiencing unemployment and engagement in drug abuse. Statistically, the Aboriginal population grew by 45% in relation to that of eight-percent among the non-indigenous group (Munch 33). For instance, the Metris growth number was approximately 389,000 while that of Inuit was about 50,000. On the other hand, the First Nations’ growth number was approximated at 698,000 (Sprott and Doob, 34). These figures represent the present number of aboriginal youths; as a result of high levels of social inequity between the aboriginal and non-aboriginal youths, the high number of

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Good Governance Essay Example for Free

Good Governance Essay Good Governance has 8 major characteristics. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. It is also responsive to the present and future needs of society. But there is one characteristic I like most, it is the Accountability. Accountability is a key requirement of good governance. Not only governmental institutions but also the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders. Who is accountable to who varies depending on whether decisions or actions taken are internal or external to an organization or institution. In general an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law. Maybe some of you will ask why is accountability important to Governance? It is because it evaluates the ongoing effectiveness of public officials or public bodies ensures that they are performing to their full potential, providing value for money in the provision of public services, instilling confidence in the government and being responsive to the community they are meant to be serving. Being accountable is also being liable, responsible for every person that affects your decision. For example, me as a Student leader we are here to serve students, to fight for their rights. Therefore, we must consider first the sake of the students before we make a decision. Because when we took our positions there is a corresponding responsibility that we must face. Reproductive Health Bill informally known as the RH Bill, are proposed laws in the Republic of the Philippines aiming to guarantee universal access to methods of contraception, fertility control, sexual education, and maternal care. For sure you are wondering why this issue is in this essay, well I believe this issue is related on being accountable. Why? Did government even consider that our country is well known to be a religious country? That, in every time they use those contraceptives they are actually killing an innocent life? They always say that this is the only way to surpass, lessen poverty. But it’s actually wrong, do they consider the effect of this or should I say to they consider themselves accountable/liable for this? Corruption is definitely one of the problems seen by the citizen and the government as well. There have been lots of controversies relative to government officials being involved with money issues. The thing is that even though there are hearings and investigations, the truth never seems to come outwhether its positive or negative news. Poverty and employment would also be among the problems. There are more people that are going hungry. Government and Us are all accountable to it. Why? We as a citizen we can make a living among ourselves because at the end of the day we are still the driver of our own life. But, as a citizen we voted those who are on the position now because we believe that they will minimize our burdens. At the point that we elect them they are already accountable. But after they got what they want all their promises turn to trash. They do things without even considering us. In the end, nothings happen. Accountability or being accountable can be achieved by putting and doing all our jobs in our hearts. Yes, it’s hard but we chose to be in this place all we need to do is face it effectively and do the best we can for the better. Don’t be scared to commit mistakes because those are our experiences and lesson learned. Remember, think first before you make a decision.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Nature Of Managerial Work Business Essay

Nature Of Managerial Work Business Essay The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare to handle especially tools, which in turn derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later mà ©nagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.[1] Some definitions of management are: Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials and money. According to the management guru Peter Drucker (1909-2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. Directors and managers have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise when given the authority by the shareholders. As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firms resources to achieve the policys objectives. The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large firms the board of directors formulates the policy which is implemented by the chief executive officer. [edit] Theoretical scope At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting plans, meeting goals. This applies even in situations planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol (1841-1925)[2] considers management to consist of six functions: forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. He was one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management. Another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933), defined management as the art of getting things done through people. She described management as philosophy.[3] Some people, however, find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase management is what managers do occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of defining management, the shifting nature of definitions and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or class. One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to business administration and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. More realistically, however, every organization must manage its work, people, processes, technology, etc. to maximize effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments which teach management as business schools. Some institutions (such as the Harvard Business School) use that name while others (such as the Yale School of Management) employ the more inclusive term management. English speakers may also use the term management or the management as a collective word describing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation. Historically this use of the term was often contrasted with the term Labor referring to those being managed. [edit] Nature of managerial work In for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range of stakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valued products at a reasonable cost (for customers) and providing rewarding employment opportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; but this occurs only very rarely. In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters elect politicians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in some countries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a new president/governor/mayor. [edit] Historical development Difficulties arise in tracing the history of management. Some see it (by definition) as a late modern (in the sense of late modernity) conceptualization. On those terms it cannot have a pre-modern history, only harbingers (such as stewards). Others, however, detect management-like-thought back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent but sometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises, given their small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically. However, innovations such as the spread of Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and the codification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment, planning and control. Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping and recording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in those times to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size and complexity of organizations, the split between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groups of shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control) gradually became more common. [edit] Early writing While management has been present for millennia, several writers have created a background of works that assisted in modern management theories.[4] [edit] Sun Tzus The Art of War Written by Chinese general Sun Tzu in the 6th century BC, The Art of War is a military strategy book that, for managerial purposes, recommends being aware of and acting on strengths and weaknesses of both a managers organization and a foes.[4] [edit] Chanakyas Arthashastra Chanakya wrote the Arthashastra around 300BC in which various strategies, techniques and management theories were written which gives an account on the management of empires, economy and family. The work is often compared to the later works of Machiavelli. [edit] Niccolà ² Machiavellis The Prince Believing that people were motivated by self-interest, Niccolà ² Machiavelli wrote The Prince in 1513 as advice for the city of Florence, Italy.[5] Machiavelli recommended that leaders use fear-but not hatred-to maintain control. [edit] Adam Smiths The Wealth of Nations Written in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims for efficient organization of work through Specialization of labor.[5] Smith described how changes in processes could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce 200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists, enabled production of 48,000 pins per day.[5] [edit] 19th century Classical economists such as Adam Smith (1723-1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and pricing issues. About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765-1825), James Watt (1736-1819), and Matthew Boulton (1728-1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization, quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning. Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, managed in profitable quasi-mass production. [edit] 20th century By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). Examples include Henry R. Townes Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylors The Principles of Scientific Management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreths Applied motion study (1917), and Henry L. Gantts charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college management textbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became first management consultant of the Japanese-management style. His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese quality assurance. The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard Business School offered the first Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. People like Henri Fayol (1841-1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891-1973), Walter Scott and J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management, while other writers, such as Elton Mayo (1880-1949), Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933), Chester Barnard (1886-1961), Max Weber (1864-1920), Rensis Likert (1903-1981), and Chris Argyris (1923 ) approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective. Peter Drucker (1909-2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept of the Corporation (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motors until 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. Drucker went on to write 39 books, many in the same vein. H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890-1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Blackett combined these statistical theories with microeconomic theory and gave birth to the science of operations research. Operations research, sometimes known as management science (but distinct from Taylors scientific management), attempts to take a scientific approach to solving management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics and operations. Some of the more recent[update] developments include the Theory of Constraints, management by objectives, reengineering, Six Sigma and various information-technology-driven theories such as agile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cogs Ladder. As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the way opened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management. Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separate branches, namely: Human resource management Operations management or production management Strategic management Marketing management Financial management Information technology management responsible for management information systems [edit] 21st century In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management. Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such as public administration, public management, and educational management. Further, management programs related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofit management and social entrepreneurship. Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from business ethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism. As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and more advocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue, and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management to some degree embraces democratic principles in that in the long term workers must give majority support to management; otherwise they leave to find other work, or go on strike. Despite the move toward workplace democracy, command-and-control organization structures remain commonplace and the de facto organization structure. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control can be seen in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected far less than employees at the lower levels. In some cases, management has even rewarded itself with bonuses after laying off level workers.[6] According to leading leadership academic Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries, its almost inevitable these days that there will be some personality disorders in a senior management team.[7]

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Use of Symbolism in T.S. Eliots, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufro

The Use of Symbolism in T.S. Eliot's, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock A well-written poem is built out of levels. Each level alludes to the next until the ultimate discovery of the poet's message. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," by T. S. Eliot, provides a perfect example of a well-crafted poem comprised of sequential levels, also known as a framed story. At the level just below the very surface, the poem obscurely tells the story of a failed lobster prophet, resurrected from the dead to warn other lobsters of the cruel fate that awaits them in the event of their capture. In the course of the story, the lobster prophet falls prey to the harvest of a lobster catcher and is then sent to a restaurant as food. While in the tank with the other lobsters, he reflects on and laments his life. This interpretation serves as a vehicle for presenting the true message of the poem, which exists on the next level, to the audience. The story of the lobster represents Eliot's own fear of people overlooking the messages he attempts to convey in his poetry. Even th ough he has learned this lesson from previous poems, he feels an attempt to save his future poems is futile in the same way as one lobster saving another is futile. One indicator that the lobster interpretation exists at the level below the surface of the poem is the yellow fog that fills the "... sawdust restaurants with oyster-shells" (Eliot L. 7). The persona describes "The yellow fog that rubs its back upon the window panes / ... Lingered upon the pools that stand in drains" (Eliot LL. 15&18). The yellow fog from the passage is the steam from a restaurant's lobster pot that boils and cooks the lobsters. The yellow fog receives its color from the dim yellow lighting of... ...e, inside the obscurity of the poem at its most superficial level, like the abuseds' half of the ox. Eliot is afraid that the audience will mistake the obscurity of the poem as the best part, and overlook the hidden good on the inside, just as the abusers' did with their half of the ox. By wrapping one thing inside of another in this way, Eliot builds an excellent compilation of levels into one, well-written poem. Works Cited Eliot, T. S.. "The Love Song of Alfred J. Prufrock." Making Literature Matter: An Anthology for Readers and Writers. 2nd Ed. Schlib & Clifford. Boston: Bedford, 2003. 851-855. Hesiod. Theogony. Trans. Apostolos N. Athanassakis. Baltimore: John Hopkins University, 1983. Hesiod. Works and Days. Trans. Apostolos N. Athanassakis. Baltimore: John Hopkins University, 1983. Holy Bible. King James Version. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1984.

Web of Deceit in Shakespeares Othello Essay -- GCSE English Literatur

Web of Deceit in Othello Shakespeare’s Othello portrays a process through which pure evil has an effect on love and morality. The character of Iago twists Othello into killing his wife, and eventually himself, through manipulating Othello’s trust and loyalty. Iago uses the handkerchief as a symbol through which Othello is convinced of Desdemona’s unfaithfulness. This handkerchief plays many roles throughout Othello. Because of the importance placed upon this object, the driving force of the play becomes centered on the particular qualities of this handkerchief. In its most important aspect, the handkerchief becomes associated with a kind of web set by Iago, in order to ensnare both Othello and Desdemona. At the beginning of Act II, Iago begins to formulate his plans to bring down Othello. As Cassio takes Desdemona’s hand and welcomes her, Iago says: He takes her by the palm. Ay, well said, whisper! With as little a web as this will I ensnare as great a fly as Cassio. Ay, smile upon her, do! I will gyve thee in thine own courtship.-You say true; ‘tis so, indeed! - If such tricks as these strip you out of you lieutenantry, it had been better you had not kissed your three fingers so oft...(II,i L.166-72) In this passage, Iago plans to use Cassio in his plan to destroy Othello. Rather than merely stating his desire to do this, Iago uses imagery based around a spider’s web. By doing so, ideas of creation, self utilization, and entrapment are brought into the plot concerning Othello. Iago likens himself to a spider, who spins a web from his own mind which will trap people, and cause them to serve his own needs. This passage shows the extent to which Iago foresees his own designs. Iago does not take an active role ... ...y, and painful reality. He can no longer trust what he believes, and must follow what he believes "Nature" has told him to do. Because Othello has strong feelings these are the only thing he is certain of feeling, and therefore follows them. This is not a man who remembers what the past has taught him. Othello now looks at the handkerchief as threads woven for the sole purpose of maligning his trust, and his life. He has lost sight of Iago’s manipulating words, in favor of action through anger and retribution. Iago has created a web of lies around Othello to accomplish two things. Othello becomes uprooted from any comfort and security gained from the past by Iago’s lies. After this has been accomplished, this web of lies gives Othello the support he desperately needs. This new dedication, however, orchestrates Othello’s downfall, and Iago’s momentary triumph. Web of Deceit in Shakespeare's Othello Essay -- GCSE English Literatur Web of Deceit in Othello Shakespeare’s Othello portrays a process through which pure evil has an effect on love and morality. The character of Iago twists Othello into killing his wife, and eventually himself, through manipulating Othello’s trust and loyalty. Iago uses the handkerchief as a symbol through which Othello is convinced of Desdemona’s unfaithfulness. This handkerchief plays many roles throughout Othello. Because of the importance placed upon this object, the driving force of the play becomes centered on the particular qualities of this handkerchief. In its most important aspect, the handkerchief becomes associated with a kind of web set by Iago, in order to ensnare both Othello and Desdemona. At the beginning of Act II, Iago begins to formulate his plans to bring down Othello. As Cassio takes Desdemona’s hand and welcomes her, Iago says: He takes her by the palm. Ay, well said, whisper! With as little a web as this will I ensnare as great a fly as Cassio. Ay, smile upon her, do! I will gyve thee in thine own courtship.-You say true; ‘tis so, indeed! - If such tricks as these strip you out of you lieutenantry, it had been better you had not kissed your three fingers so oft...(II,i L.166-72) In this passage, Iago plans to use Cassio in his plan to destroy Othello. Rather than merely stating his desire to do this, Iago uses imagery based around a spider’s web. By doing so, ideas of creation, self utilization, and entrapment are brought into the plot concerning Othello. Iago likens himself to a spider, who spins a web from his own mind which will trap people, and cause them to serve his own needs. This passage shows the extent to which Iago foresees his own designs. Iago does not take an active role ... ...y, and painful reality. He can no longer trust what he believes, and must follow what he believes "Nature" has told him to do. Because Othello has strong feelings these are the only thing he is certain of feeling, and therefore follows them. This is not a man who remembers what the past has taught him. Othello now looks at the handkerchief as threads woven for the sole purpose of maligning his trust, and his life. He has lost sight of Iago’s manipulating words, in favor of action through anger and retribution. Iago has created a web of lies around Othello to accomplish two things. Othello becomes uprooted from any comfort and security gained from the past by Iago’s lies. After this has been accomplished, this web of lies gives Othello the support he desperately needs. This new dedication, however, orchestrates Othello’s downfall, and Iago’s momentary triumph.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Concert Life Essay -- essays research papers

We were the metal, Ericson stadium the magnet. With the burning heat reaching down to scold our pale defenceless faces we began walking impatiently at a pressing pace towards the stadium. The stadium projected a hum of activity and instrumental sound, which was deafening the ear, already! . We clutched our tickets tightly as though they contained the final ingredient to the cure of cancer.Rapidly consuming energy drinks which were to provide us with the weaponry energy to battle a physically and mentally tiring day of dancing and trancing to magical beats and vocals .We swarmed with countless other bees to the gate of the hive .The excitement at this point was unmeasurable, indescribable, undefinable .We entered mesmerised, it would have been mentally impossible to take in what surrounded me at once, frozen with shock my eyes flickerd as though malfunctioning, enjoying fragments of what there was to see. There were t shirt sales, pricing stands, EFTPOS machines , people , autograph signing booths , people , stages and people , tents and people , rides , skateboard ramps and more people. With no knowledge of direction I journeyed into close proximity of the main stage where Australian band 'Regurgatator' encouraged thousands of rocking heads. We ventured through the crowd to destination unknown with our path being dictated by others equally as lost.In time I gathered my senses and began to absorb the surroundings the best I could. I obtained the timetable of acts, which edu...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Technology-Enhanced Learning In Education

The Internet is a timely tool for pedagogues who are reforming instruction. If we believe information is the bedrock of cognition, understanding and power, so cosmopolitan entree, to worldwide databases and latest, planetary information and people-to-people networking, is important to supplying pupils with educational challenges. † Children and striplings in modern societies are turning up in a universe where engineering is present everyplace. The extended usage of Information and Communication Technologies ( ICT ) by striplings in their day-to-day life for leisure, amusement and societal interaction is doing a great impact on their acquisition demands, demands and outlooks. They need to larn accomplishments and competencies, for self-development, engagement in society every bit good as for future occupations. Furthermore, they are besides progressively utilizing ICT for any learning intents, frequently outside the schoolroom. This gives rise to new ways of acquisition, including informal 1s which are shaped by new ICT tools, offering exciting larning chances that are basically different than earlier tools. This is the ground why instruction is sing a major invention and the instrument in this development is the computing machine. Computers and cyberspace installations are nowadays available in all our province schools: from primary to secondary and besides at the third degree. It is expected that instruction will see ICT as a major instruction and larning tool across all educational establishments. With its power of interactivity, multimedia and communicating, the computing machine proves an first-class tool for instruction. Psychologists believe that the best feedback is that which comes instantly after the event. What can be more immediate than ‘surfing ‘ the cyberspace and acquiring the consequences wished for within seconds? Of class, the usage of ICT in instruction brings along the demand to larn how to utilize this medium decently because there are legion ways in which the computing machine can be integrated within the learning procedure. Therefore new learning methods need to be explored, equipment has to be purchased, installed, on a regular basis maintained and instructors require preparation. This finally leads to consequences which decidedly need to be evaluated and reviewed for farther betterment.1.1.1 Virtual Learning EnvironmentRecent old ages have seen a considerable scope of tools and programmes that support online acquisition. One such type is a practical acquisition environment which is a web-based information-rich acquisition environment that provides a scope of tools and installations for scholars and instructors to work together. INSPIRAL, a undertaking in the United Kingdom, defined practical acquisition environments as follows: â€Å" VLEs are web-based toolkits that facilitate larning through the proviso and integrating of online instruction and acquisition stuffs and tools. † INSPIRAL ( 2001 ) This brings about a displacement in the important function of the instructor, from that of ‘gatekeeper ‘ of cognition to that of ‘facilitator ‘ and ‘manager ‘ of the acquisition environment, in order to run into the demands of the pupils. Therefore, the pupil, through the counsel of the instructor, sets precedences and accomplishable ends and takes on the duty for making the set ends. Students have the chance to prosecute in autonomous acquisition experiences and activities that promote self-expression, co-operative acquisition and interaction non merely with their immediate environment but with the outside universe every bit good.Aims of the ProbeThere is a sense of urgency for instruction establishments to happen ways to move in favor of the new larning coevals in order to enable new ways of larning guaranting that the accomplishments for future occupations are acquired. It is indispensable to do certain that 21st century acquisition in Europe, p articularly in Malta, becomes more efficient, just and advanced than it of all time was in the yesteryear. The European 2020 scheme high spots of import tendencies, which will take to a extremist transmutation in instruction taking up new accomplishments needed for new occupations. In this regard, e-learning has many assets to offer so as to reenforce and do more accessible educational facets. Teachers hence need to go go-betweens between pupils, cognition and engineering while internet-based societal networking will be a complimentary characteristic to practical acquisition. This scheme aims at sharing best patterns on e-learning undertakings across Europe with a peculiar accent on mobility, quality criterions, instructors ‘ preparation and games. At the European Council held in Lisbon in March 2000, 15 European Heads of Government set a end for Europe to go the most competitory knowledge-based economic system in the universe, capable of sustainable economic growing with more and better occupations and greater societal coherence. Due to the fact that ICT and other related policies play a cardinal function in accomplishing the ends of the Lisbon scheme, the renewed Lisbon ends of 2005 included programs to ease invention through the execution of ICT and higher investing in human capital. Brian Restall, ( 2008 ) in the study ‘The Development of eServices in an Hypertrophied Europium: eLearning in Malta ‘ , presents the consequences of a research on e-learning in Malta. The authorities invested well in ICT in public schools in the last decennary. This has allowed the Maltese instruction sector to be ranked as one of the most technologically connected in the universe. All province schools are networked, connected to broadband cyberspace with a computing machine and an enterprise has been launched to utilize ICT across the course of study. However it is worthy of note that the deficiency of expertness and practical support in seting into pattern e-learning in the course of study, together with appropriate preparation both for instructors and pupils, is still lending significantly to the restrictions of consumption. In fact, most of the attempts that have been noted locally were in most instances consequences of independent attempts at the integrating of ICT in instruction. E-learning is non about taking classroom-based acquisition and forcing it down a wire. Rather, e-learning nowadayss a new position on how engineering can be applied to heighten what instructors do good now, and to present new advanced ways to maximize the handiness, enjoyment and the effectivity of larning for the person. Indeed, online acquisition can besides let educational experiences to be tailored to the demands of persons or groups of persons. Other societal groups, such as scholars with household committednesss and with disablements, can besides profit if the physical and temporal obstructions to instruction are removed with the aid of engineering. â€Å" A major challenge which the present instruction system faces is the effectual and efficient operation of the different educational services in order to supply quality instruction ‘for all kids to win ‘ , a taking aim of the Ministry of Education. The educational substructure and system has grown to such an extent that it requires a more timely and effectual bringing of services and support. † Although the research carried out in this peculiar country has non been conclusive, the ‘laptop for instructors ‘ enterprise, and other similar attempts[ 1 ]hold proven to lend to instructors ‘ betterment of ICT literacy. In secondary schools particularly, holistic attacks to ICT integrating should go the norm instead than the exclusion. The ICT accomplishments that Maltese pupils are geting during their ICT lessons need to be used in other topics in order to implant the accomplishments gained. Some schools are already trying inter-disciplinary and cross-curricular classs and are gaining the potency of ICT ; nevertheless more schools need to do such a measure. On the other manus, a recent â€Å" cognition function † exercising conducted by the World Bank ‘s Information for Development Programme ( InfoDev ) ( Trucano, 2005 ) revealed that, despite decennaries of big investings in ICT to profit instruction in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development ( OECD ) states, information to back up the theoretical benefits from ICT are limited. After gaining the job that occurred within the past old ages where merely classroom-based acquisition was taking topographic point without instructors doing usage of ICT tools, as described in this subdivision and as summarised below, the chief aims that this thesis will try to make are: How to outdo integrate the usage of ICT with the acquisition of Mathematics, viz. the subject of Algebra Derive an penetration and hence compare the interactions that happen in the schoolroom and on-lineStructure of the ProbeThe first portion of this thesis gives a reappraisal of different literatures and surveies that have taken topographic point global. Emphasis is put on those coming from the United Kingdom, besides those from Malta. This is because, Maltese instruction has invariably moved, someway, in conformity with British instruction. The method of how the research was carried out will so be explained in item and eventually the informations and consequences obtained will be analysed and compared. The thesis will reason with some recommendations given to instructors who would wish to better, with the aid of ICT, the mathematical acquisition experience offered in Maltese schools.

Monday, September 16, 2019

A Worn Path: Dementia Essay

Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. It affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. This disease usually affects the old generation. As the human body ages, some aspects of life may not be as easy as they were before. In this paper, I will talk about the causes, symptoms, medications, diagnosis, complications, and preventions of Dementia. The causes of Dementia can be heightened. Most types of dementia are nonreversible. Nonreversible means the changes in the brain that are causing the dementia cannot be stopped or turned back. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia. Lewy body disease is a leading cause of dementia in elderly adults. People with this condition have abnormal protein structures in certain areas of the brain. Dementia also can be due to many small strokes. This is called vascular dementia. Some other medical conditions that can lead to Dementia are Huntingson’s Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. Some causes of dementia may be stopped or reversed if they are found soon enough. Some more causes are brain injury, brain tumor, chronic alcohol abuse, changes in sodium and calcium levels. Dementia usually occurs in older age. It is rare in people under age 60. The risk for dementia increases as a person gets older. Dementia symptoms include difficulty with many areas of mental function. Some symptoms are language, memory, perception, emotional behavior or personality, and cognitive skills such as such as critical thinking, calculation, and judgment. Dementia usually first appears as forgetfulness. Mild cognitive impairment is the stage between normal forgetfulness due to aging and the development of dementia. People with MCI have mild problems with thinking and memory that do not interfere with everyday activities. They are often aware of the forgetfulness. Not everyone with MCI develops dementia. Some symptoms of MCI are: Difficulty performing more than one task at a time, difficulty solving problems or making decisions, forgetting recent events or conversations, taking longer to perform more difficult mental activities. The early symptoms of dementia can include: Difficulty performing tasks that take some thought, but that used to come easily, such as balancing a checkbook, playing games, and learning new information or routines. Getting lost on familiar routes can also be an early sign of Dementia. Language problems, such as trouble finding the name of familiar objects, losing interest in things you previously enjoyed, flat mood, misplacing items, and personality changes and loss of social skills, which can lead to inappropriate behaviors.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

The Experience of Swimming

The Experience of Swimming What is Swimming? Swimming is a sport or activity of moving one’s body through water. I will be writing about my experiences of swimming, good and bad. Personally, I love swimming because I love being in the water. I started swimming when I was 6 years old. And at first I thought that swimming was a scary thing to do, but it was a fun experience. First, I’m going to tell you about my bad experience about swimming. When I was about 4 years old; and it was the time that I didn’t know how to swim. So a kid who was being a jerk pushed me into a pool.When falling into the pool, the water pushed me down from all sides. Like splashing around for no reason; though it looked like I’m having trouble. In the water, pushing up, down, left and right as nothing made any sense to me. The more I struggled, the more I get disoriented as I pushed myself up with my arms and legs. As I couldn’t find leverage, I was slowing going under into th e deep blue. My lungs burned for more air as my ears shocks and numbs. As how it felt that I tried to keep the air in me, it burst out of my mouth as bubbles reaching up the surface of the pool.My face was looking up; gasping for air. Not knowing what would happen next, everything around me just turned black. Complete utter darkness with no sound at all. But then again, there was a light coming towards to me. It wants me to come back. Through my unconscious state, I went there and woke up: coughing out water from the concrete floor. As I opened my eyes, it was blurry and I could hear again. Hearing my parents’ cry and also the other kid’s parents shouting at him. For what he did wrong, he was also crying. As for the person who had saved me from the pool of darkness, was my cousin.She just got back home from school and noticed that I was at the pool. So she just quickly ran to the pool, threw her backpack and took off her shoes to dive in and get me out quickly. Thanks to her, I was brought back alive but fear of swimming took place in my mind. Scared and frightened I was. Next, I’m going to tell you about my good experience about swimming. To overcome my fear from swimming, I had to go back into that pool where I was drowned. When entering the pool, it feels as if ice is circulating around the body. Then later on, I feel warm all of a sudden.It felt weird. In the pool, I am about two and a half feet above the water; I stare at it, and it stares right back at me. When the wind started to blow, it feels cool and chill around my wet body. As I was still in the water, there was a scent of chlorine. From the height of the pool, the black tile that runs down the center of every lane appears to me as a runway. In just a few seconds I will be moving down that runway, trying to take off above the water. My eyes will be focused on that tile, to make sure I am in the center of my lane.I can see the water grinning and laughing at me now; I am standing on the block with my knees almost to the point of shaking. Right now, it is so calm and smooth, beckoning me to dive in. But in just a few seconds, I gave into diving underwater. It was awesome to the point that it felt a wave pushing through you. It was a good experience I had for swimming. Though I had horrible experience swimming when I was young, over the years I've learned to conquer and overcome the fear of swimming, as I grew older. All in all, swimming was a fun experience in the end. And as what I’ve become now, I still love swimming.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Merchant Banking Essay

A merchant banking is a financial institution primarily engaged in offering financial services and advice to company and wealthy individuals on how to use their money. A merchant bank deal with commercial banking needs of finance, company & long term loans and stock writing. Merchant banking does not have retail offices where customer can go and access their account. A merchant bank is also called as wholesale banking. OBJECTIVE Main objective of merchant banking is coordinating the activities like the bankers, advertising agency, printers and underwriters etc. Guide companies to get register there share under SEBI act.  The merchant banking determine the number of share, price of the stocks and the timing of the release of this new stock. They also provide services to the finance housing schemes for the construction of houses and buying of land. History and growth of Merchant Banking in India Before 1960s there was no merchant banking in India. This system started after 1960s. The Grind lay’s bank was the first bank which started merchant banking services. Grind lay’s bank is the largest foreign bank in the country. The main service offered by merchant banking includes the management of public issues and some aspects of financial consultancy. After this more banks took initiative of merchant banking services. Bank like Citibank came in 1970. Merchant banking with Citibank play role in new entrepreneur and evaluation of new project. Raising funds through equity took place. Management consultancy services were started. State bank of India started the merchant banking in 1972. Before 1972 state bank of India used to only provide funds. But after 1972 state bank of India started multi-tasking. Commercial banks which followed state bank of India were 1. Central bank in 1977. 2. Syndicate bank in 1977. 3. Standard chartered bank, mercantile bank and bank of Baroda in 1978. 4. United bank of India, Punjab national bank, canara bank, Indian overseas  bank in late 70’s and in early 80’s. Importance of Merchant Banking Need for Merchant Banking is felt in the wake of huge public savings lying untapped. Merchant bankers can play highly significant role in mobilizing funds of savers to investible channels assuring promising returns on investments and thus can assist in meeting the widening demand for inevitable funds for economic activity. With growth of merchant banking profession corporate enterprises are undertaking expansion, modernization, and diversification of the existing enterprises. This reinforces the need for a vigorous role to be played by merchant banking. Reasons why specialist merchant banks have crucial role to play in India 1) Growing industrialization and increase of technologically advanced industries. 2) Need for encouragement of small and medium industrialists, who require specialist services. 3) Growing complexity in rules and procedures of the government. 4) Need to develop backward areas and states which require different criteria. 5) Exploring the possibility of joint ventures abroad and foreign markets. 6) Promoting the role of New Market in mobilizing savings from the public. Functions performed under Merchant Banking The important functions of merchant bankers are: 1) Management of Debt and Equity Offerings: This forms the main function of the merchant banker. He assists the companies in raising funds from the market. The undergoing tasks include instrument designing, pricing the issue, registration of the offer document, underwriting support, marketing of the issue, allotment and refund and listing on stock exchanges. 2) Placement and Distribution: The merchant banker helps in distributing various securities like equity shares, debt instruments, mutual funds, insurance products, and commercial paper, to name a few. The distribution network of the merchant banker can be classified as institutional and retail in nature. The institutional network  consists of mutual funds, foreign institutional investors; private equity funds pension funds, financial institutions, etc. 3) Corporate Advisory Services: It denotes advice provided by a merchant banker to a corporate unit to ensure better corporate unit to ensure better corporate performance in terms of image building among investors, steady growth through good working, appreciation in market value of its equity shares. The counseling is limited to only opinions and suggestions and any detailed analysis would form part of a specific service 4) Project Advisory Services: Project counseling is a very important and lucrative merchant banking service. It covers development of an idea into a project, preparation of the project report , estimation of the cost of the project and deciding upon the means of financial and techno-economic appraisal of projects for capital issue/financing etc. The fee charged for project report preparation / appraisal ranges between 0.25% to 2% of the total project cost. The fee charged depends upon- a)Total size of the project b)The total complexity of the project 5) Loan Syndication: Merchant bankers arrange to tie up loans for their clients. This takes place in a series of steps. Firstly, they analyze the pattern of the client’s cash flows, based on which the terms of the borrowings can be defined. Then the merchant banker prepares a detailed loan memorandum, which is circulated to various banks and financial institutions and they are invited to participate in the syndicate. The banks then negotiate the terms of lending on the basis of which the final allocation is done. 6) Providing Venture Capital Financing: Merchant bankers help companies in obtaining venture capital financing for financing their new and innovative strategies. 7) Management of Capital Issues: a) Pre-issue Management: Steps required to be taken to manage Pre-issue activity are as follows: 1) Obtaining stock exchange approvals tomemorandum and articles of association. 2) Taking action as per SEBI guidelines. 3) Finalising the appointments of the following agencies – Co managers /advisors to the issue. Underwriters to the issue. Brokers to the issue. Bnakers to the issue and refund banker. Advertising agency. Printers and registrars to the issue. 4) Advise the company to appoint auditors, legal advisers and broad base Board of Directors. 5) Drafting the prospectus. 6) Obtaining approvals of draft prospectus from the company’s legal advisors, underwriting financial institutions/banks. 7) Obtaining consent from parties and agencies acting for the issue to be enclosed with the prospectus. 8) Approval of prospectus from Securities and exchange Board Of India(Sebi). 9) Filing of the prospectus with registrar of companies (Roc) 10) Making an application for enlistment with Stock Exchange along with copy of the prospectus. 11) Publicity of the issue with advertisement and conferences 12) Open subscription list. B) Post Issue Management: Steps involved: 1) To verify and confirm that the issue is subscribed to the extent of 90% including development from underwriters in case of subscription. 2) To supervise and co-ordinate the allotment procedures of registrar to the issue  as per prescribed Stock Exchange guidelines. 3) 3)To ensure issue of refund order , allotment letters/certificates within the prescribed time limit of 10 weeks after the closure of subscription list 4) To report periodically to SEBI about the progress in the matters related to allotment and refunds. 5) To ensure the listing of securities at a stock exchanges. 6) To attend the investors for managers regarding the public issue. 7) The merchant bankers managing public issue can negotiate fee subject to a ceiling .This fee is to be shared by all lead managers, advisers etc. Registration with SEBI as Merchant Banker Merchant banks are generally setup as subsidiary companies of banks. For e.g.: SBI caps, ICICI securities etc. Once the feasibility studies are undertaken and it comes out to be viable then the following steps are undertaken for registration with SEBI: Application for grant of certificate: An application for grant of certificate is required to be made with SEBI as without holding the certificate no person can act as a merchant banker. The application can be made in one of the following categories: 1. Category 1: To carry out any activity of issue management which includes preparation of prospectus and other information relating to issue, determining financial structure, tie up of financers and financial allotment, and refund of the subscription. Another activity that pertains to this category is of advisor, consultant manager, underwriter, portfolio manager. 2. Category 2: To act as advisor. Consultant, co manager, underwriter and portfolio manager. 3. Category 3: To act as underwriter, advisor, and consultant to an issue. 4. Category 4: To act only as advisor and consultant to an issue. To carry on the activity of underwriter and portfolio manager, a separate certificate of registration needs to be obtained from SEBI. Furnishing of information, clarification, and personal representation: The applicant may need to provide further information or clarification regarding matters related to activity of merchant banker. Consideration of application: Before granting the certificate, the Board shall take into account that the  applicant complies with the following requirement 1. The applicant shall be a body corporate other than a non banking financial company. 2. The merchant banker who has been granted the certificate by RBI to act as primary dealer shall carry on such activity with the condition that it should not accept or hold any public deposit. 3. The applicant should have necessary infrastructure to carry on his activities. 4. The applicant should employ atleast two persons who have the experience to conduct the business of merchant banker. 5. The applicant should fulfill the capital adequacy requirement as follows: The capital adequacy requirement should not be less than the net worth of the applicant. The net worth shall be as follows Category 1: 5 crores Category 2: 50 lacs Category 3: 20 lacs Category 4: Nil 6. The applicant or any of his associate should be free of any legal charges, should not have been convicted for any offence and not found guilty of any economic offence. 7. The applicant should possess professional qualification from any recognized govt. institute in finance law or business management. Procedure for registration: The SEBI on being satisfied with the eligibility of the applicant shall grant him a certificate . Payment of fees: The applicant has to pay Rs. 5 lacs within 15 days of date of receipt of intimation regarding grant of certificate. If the merchant banker fails to pay the required fee, the Board may suspend the registration and applicant may cease to carry on activity as merchant banker for the period during which the subscription subsists. The merchant banker may commence on the business as merchant banker on the acquisition of Certificate of Registration from SEBI after the completion of above mentioned formalities. Procedure for Inspection: Board’s Right to inspect The Board may appoint one or more persons as inspecting authority to undertake inspection of the books of accounts, records and documents of the merchant banker for any of the purposes specified in sub-regulation (2). Notice before inspection: Before undertaking an inspection, the Board shall give a reasonable notice to the merchant banker for that purpose. Where the Board is satisfied that in the interest of the investors no such notice should be given, it may inspect without prior notice. During the course of inspection, the merchant banker against whom an inspection is being carried out shall be bound to discharge his obligations. Obligations of Merchant Banker on Inspection: It shall be the duty of every director, proprietor, partner, officer and employee of the merchant banker, who is being inspected, to produce to the inspecting authority such books, accounts and other documents in his custody or control and furnish him with the statements and information relating to his activities as a merchant banker within such time as the inspecting authority may require. The merchant banker shall allow the inspecting authority to have reasonable access to the premises occupied by such merchant banker or by any other person on his behalf and also extend reasonable facility for examining any books, records, documents and computer data in the possession of the merchant banker or any such other person and also provide copies of documents or other materials which, in the opinion of the inspecting authority are relevant for the purposes of the inspection. The inspecting authority, in the course of inspection, shall be entitled to examine or record statements of any principal officer, director, partner, proprietor and employee of the merchant banker. It shall be the duty of every director, proprietor, partner, officer or employee of the merchant banker to give to the inspecting authority all assistance in connection with the inspection which the merchant banker may be reasonably expected to give. Submission of Report to the Board: The inspecting authority shall, as soon as possible submit, an inspection report to the Board. Action on Inspection or Investigation Report: The Board of the Chairman shall after consideration of inspection or investigation report take such action. Appointment of Auditor: The Board may appoint a qualified auditor to investigate into the books of account or the affairs of the merchant banker. Communication of findings: The Board shall after consideration of the inspection report communicate the  findings to the merchant banker to give him an opportunity of being heard before any action is taken by the Board on the findings of the inspecting authority. On receipt of the explanation if any, from the merchant banker, the Board may call upon the merchant banker to take such measures as the Board may deem fit in the interest of the securities market and for due compliance with provisions of the Act, rules and regulations. Guidelines of SEBI The SEBI has issued guidelines for the issue of capital by companies. The guidelines mainly cover the requirement for the first issue by a new or existing company. The guidelines issued by SEBI are mentioned below: If any company’s other income exceeds 10% of the total income, the details should be disclosed. The company should disclose any adverse situation which affects the operations of the company. The company should also disclose the capacity utilization of plant for the last 3 years. The promoters must maintain their holding at least 20% of the expanded capital. The minimum application money payable at the time of issue should not be less than 25% of the issue price. The company should disclose the time normally taken for the disposal of investor’s grievances. The company can make firm allotments in public issues as follows: 1. Indian Mutual funds (20%) 2. FII’s (24%) 3. Regular employees of the company (10%) 4. Financial institution (20%) The company should disclose the safety net scheme or buy back arrangements of the shares proposed in public issue. In case of public issues, atleast 30 mandatory collection centres should be established. In the guidelines regarding right issue, the company should give advertisements in not more than 2 newspapers about the dispatch of letter of offers. No preferential allotment to be made along then rights issue. The company should disclose the free agreement between the lead managers and the company in the memorandum of understanding. Difference between Merchant Banking and Commercial Banking MERCHANT BANKING COMMERCIAL BANKING Merchant banking deals with equity and equity related finance. Merchant banks are management oriented. Merchant banks willing to accept risks of business. The activities of merchant banks include project counseling in area of capital restructuring, mergers, amalgamations e.t.c. Commercial banking deals with debt and debt related finance. Commercial banks are asset oriented. Commercial banks generally avoid risks of business. Commercial bankers are merely financiers. Difference between Merchant Banking and Investment Banking MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENT BANKING Merchant banking is purely fee based. Merchant banking are impossible to stay aloof from international trends. Merchant banks expands into the field of securities, underwriting Merchant banking primarily perform international financing activities such as 1. Foreign corporate investing 2. Foreign real estate investment. 3. Trade finance and inter transaction facilitation. Merchant banks tends to operate on small scale companies and offer creative equity financing ,and numbers of corporate credit products. Investment banking is both fee based and fund based. Investment banking commits their own funds. Investment banks trade finance activities. Investing banking facilitate mergers and acquisitions through share sales and provide research and financial consulting to companies. It focuses on IPO’s and large public and private share offering. While investment banks tends to  focus on large companies. Recent developments in Merchant Banking The recent developments in merchant banking are due to certain contributory factors in India are : The merchant banking was at its best during 1985-1992 when there were many new issues . It was expected that 2010 going to be good time for merchant banks , as many new issues are coming up . The foreign investors- both in the form of portfolio investment and through foreign direct investments are venturing in Indian Economy. It is increasing the scope of merchant bankers in many ways. Disinvestments in the government sector in the country give a big scope to the merchant bankers to function as consultants. Introducing of new financial instruments in the market has increased the opportunity for the merchant banks. The merger and corporate restructuring along with MOU and MOA are giving immense opportunities to the merchant bankers for consultancy jobs. Challenges faced by Merchant Banker in India SEBI guideline has restricted their operations to Issue Management and Portfolio .Management to some extent due to which the scope of work is limited. The net worth requirement is very high in categories I and II specially so many professionally experienced person/organizations cannot come into the picture. Poor New issues market in India is drying up the business of the merchant bankers. Scope for Merchant Banking 1. Growth of primary market: if the primary market grows and issues increases, the scope of merchant banking will be enhanced. 2. Entry of foreign investment: now India capital market directly taps foreign capital through euro issues.FDI is increased in capital market .so merchant bankers is required to advice them for their investment in India. The increasing number of joint ventures also requires expert services of merchant bankers. if more and more NRI’s participate in capital market ,there will be great demand for merchant banker services. 3. Changing policy of financial institutions: now the lending prices of financial institutions are based on project orientation, so the merchant banker services will be needed by corporate enterprise to provide expert guidance. 4. Development of debt markets: if the debt market is enhanced, there will be tremendous scope for merchant bankers, now NSE and OTCEI are planned to raise funds through their debt instruments. 5. Corporate restructuring: due to liberalization and globalization companies are facing lot of competitions .In order to compete, they have to restructuring, merger, acquisitions or disinvestments. They offer good opportunities to merchant bankers.