Saturday, August 31, 2019

Vespucci View on Native Americans

The impression that I got from people accounted to Vespucci is that Native Indians are barbarians with no shame. Vespucci gives the impression by showing that they are cannibals (Vespucci 18). For example, they will eat human flesh from their enemies. They have no leader and no rules are set. Basically, I picture humans running around like wild animals without shame. In addition, the men are lustful without shame, taking as much women as they can. Even the women are crazy; they would cause abortion if their husband anger them (Vespucci 18). I get the impression that they have no remorse and that they are evil. The only positive thing that I feel is that they are creative, when it comes to music and that food is plentiful. For example, the Indians play various instruments such as horns and bells (Vespucci 18). Overall, I feel that these Indians are too psychotic and that they need to reform their ways immediately. The document shows that the author is pretty honest, but cocky. He would offer friendship first, but if the Indians do not accept, they would be subjected to slavery (Vespucci 18). This shows me that he’s at least fair when making deals. I feel that he’s fascinated by the way the Indians live, but not in a good way. His tone is arrogant, because his people see Indians as a pathetic civilization. The author shows that he did not know that such people existed, until he discovered them. He contradicts himself though, when he would capture Indians and make them into slaves if they did not accept his friendship. Enslaving people is also immoral and unethical. Vespucci is a bit headstrong when judging others, when he too is judged by others.

Friday, August 30, 2019

A Bad Spell for a Worst Witch Essay

Mildred Hubble returns to Miss Cackle’s Academy for Witches for her second year, determined to lose her embarrassing reputation as â€Å"the worst witch in the school†. After Maud Moonshine and Enid Nightshade arrive, the three bump into two first-years (one of whom reminds Mildred very strongly of someone, the other with ginger frizzy hair in bunches). The one who seems familiar bursts into tears and clings onto Mildred when she hears that a lot of the teachers (including Miss Hardbroom) are quite strict. Mildred also accidentally slips a made-up story about Miss Hardbroom turning a student into a frog when she was just two seconds late for a lesson. To the girl’s horror, they also learn that Miss Hardbroom will be replacing Miss Gimlett as their form-mistress for their second year. The next morning, a fire bell rings. Mildred scrambles into her clothes but notices outisde her window Miss Hardbroom standing in the playground surrounded by hazy purple smoke. Thinking she is in a state of shock, Mildred tries to douse her in freezing cold water but the bucket slips off her broomstick and lands with a clang on Miss Hardbroom’s head. See more:  Capital budgeting essay After witnessing the bucket incident between Mildred and Miss Hardbroom, Ethel Hallow confronts Mildred at lunchtime saying that the girl she told the frog story to was her younger sister, Sybil Hallow. After prodding at Mildred, Mildred loses her temper and insults Ethel’s family (â€Å"All you Hallows are weeds, weeds, weeds! â€Å"). After an unfortunate flying lesson, where Tabby makes another terrifying attempt to avoid sitting on the end of the broomstick, Miss Hardbroom sends Mildred to her room to calm down. When sitting in her bed, however, Mildred accidentally falls asleep and doesn’t hear Ethel creeping into her room. Mildred is awoken by her bedroom door shutting only to find that everything looks giant-sized, even Tabby. She peeks in the mirror only to find that somebody has turned her into a frog. Whe jumping onto her bed, the frog-Mildred notices a tatty handful of weeds on her pillow, no doubt left by Ethel as a reference to her family’s insult and why she turned her into the frog. Panicking, Mildred squeezes under the gap under her bedroom door and hops off to a potions lesson where everyone has noticed that she has disappeared. Miss Hardbroom, however, discovers her and puts her in a jar. During the potions lesson, Mildred manages to escape from the jar and hops over to Ethel’s desk where she drinks an invisibility potion that turns her invisible. Taking advantage of her invisibility, the frog-Mildred hops out of the academy and lands in the lilypond on the castle grounds. In the lilypond, Mildred meets another frog who also was a human once called Algernon Rowan-Webb. Algernon reveals that he was turned into a frog by one of his fellow magicians after the two had an argument. Algernon also reveals that the one thing he is craving is some toats and crumpets with butter. Promising to come back for him, Mildred hops back up to the academy where Maud and Enid instantly recognise her. They take her to Ethel where she reluctantly turns her back into a human. Miss Hardbroom comes by and Ethel tells her that she caught Maud, Enid, and Mildred sneaking around the school. Miss Hardbroom is just about to give Mildred a punishment, when she notices that Mildred’s feet are still invisible. Mildred tells Miss Hardbroom what really happened. Miss Hardbroom tells Mildred and Ethel to go to her office the next day. In the morning, Mildred and Ethel have a brief squabble about who’s fault it was until Miss Hardbroom turns up. After the full story is explained, Miss Hardbroom bans both of them from attending the Halloween ceremonies (which was the only chance Mildred would have to come into contact with a magician who could turn Algernon back into a human). With no other options, Mildred feels she has no choice but to kidnap somebody who is going to the Halloween festival. She tricks a third-year witch, Griselda Blackwood, into looking under her bed for an imaginary beetle where Mildred ties her up and gags her and takes her cat. Later, Ethel discovers Griselda being held captive in Mildred’s room and the two fly off to the festival to turn Mildred in. Mildred gives herself away and barges up to Mr. Hellibore where she gives him the box that contains Algernon. Mr. Hellibore, who was one of Algernon’s fellow magicians at the time of his transformation, turns him back to his human form. As a last request from Mildred, Mr. Hellibore magic’s up a pot of tea along with some toast and crumpets with butter. The three head off to enjoy the supper.

Shoulder Surgery and the Athlete

For many competitive and/or professional athletes, injury is unforeseeable and in some cases, the decision to continue on with their sport comes into question. More specifically, for those athletes who have developed, or even, were born with instable shoulders and have undergone physical therapy, are inevitably plagued with the notion, when therapy fails to work, to either have surgery to fix their shoulder(s) and to continue participating in their sport, or to quit their sport. In this sense, for the athletes who want to carry on in their sport, it appears that an open or arthroscopic Bankart Repair is the most plausible solution in correcting on-going shoulder instability in athletes who have not improved through therapy and want to continue with their sport. In competitive or professional athletes, a stable shoulder is imperative for peak performance, especially for those athletes involved in sports that use persistent overhead motions, such as swimming, or throwing a baseball. In understanding a stable shoulder, the shoulder is a joint that contains three primary bones: the shoulder blade, or scapula, the collarbone, or clavicle, and the upper arm bone, also known as the humerus. In addition, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2001), dictate that the head of the humerus bone (the humeral head) rests in a shallow socket within the shoulder blade called the glenoid and is held into the socket by the lining of the joint called the capsule. Moreover, the humeral head is quite larger than that of the socket, and a soft fibrous tissue rim, known as the labrum, surrounds the socket, which helps keep the joint stabilized (Shoulder joint tear). Furthermore, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2001) states the rim in the socket deepens by up to 50 percent, therefore allowing the humeral head to fit better. What’s more is that the rim also serves as an attachment site for several ligaments (Shoulder joint tear). Additionally, the shoulder is referenced as being a ball and socket type joint that permits for a wide range of movement. Although the shoulder joint is intended to be stabilized, in many cases while athletes participate in their sports, they receive injuries to their shoulders that allows for their shoulder(s) to become instable, or even, it has been found that in some competitive athletes who might experience pain whilst enduring continuous overhead motions, may have inherited instable shoulders and have repeatedly gitated the joint. In this sense, it is possible that injuries to the tissue rim that surrounds the socket of the shoulder can occur from acute trauma or repetitive shoulder motion like swimming or throwing and/or pitching, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2001), (Shoulder joint tear). More so, in its discovery, while the shoulder joint has a wide range of motion, instability can occur when the humeral head moves out of the socket, or glenoid ca vity. The humeral head, considered as the ball portion of the ball and socket joint, â€Å"can move either partially (sublux) or completely (dislocate) out of the socket† (Sports medicine & shoulder surgery). Moreover, the humeral head can sublux or dislocate itself in three different directions: anteriorly, or forward, out of the bottom of the joint (inferior), or backward (posterior). Additionally, with any trauma to a stable shoulder, not only can the humeral head be forcefully dislocated or sublux, but the ligaments, capsule, or labrum can be torn, detached, or stretched from the shoulder bone as well. Conversely, McFarland and Petersen declare that although the humeral head is capable of being put back in place, the ligaments, labrum, or capsule may heal in a stretched or loose position, thus increasing the chance of subluxation or dislocation to occur again (Sports medicine & shoulder surgery). In addition, there are wide ranges of problems that are contributed to shoulder instability that of which can take on many different forms in a competitive athletes shoulder(s). More so, according to Wahl and Slaney (2005), these different factors influence how the shoulder should be treated, nonetheless each of these factors needs to be considered (Arthroscopic shoulder surgery). One of these forms is the severity of the instability where the severity can range anywhere from being subtle, to mild or moderate, or severe. Furthermore, the direction and mechanism of instability can also be a contributing factor. As argued by Wahl and Slaney (2005), with direction, the instability of a shoulder can be due from anterior, posterior, or multi-directional dislocation or subluxation, and in the mechanism of instability, it can either be traumatic or a-traumatic (Arthroscopic shoulder surgery). Furthermore, Wahl and Slaney (2005) have also inquired that when a young athlete suffers from subluxation or dislocation, â€Å"it is statistically likely that they will dislocate again. Studies have shown that when a dislocation occurs in a child with open growth plates, there is up to a 100 percent chance that they will dislocate again. † Additionally, Wahl and Slaney (2005) claim that in young adults, typically under the age of 20, whose growth plates have just begun to close, â€Å"the re-dislocation rate is about 55 percent to 95 percent† (Arthroscopic shoulder surgery). Therefore, it appears that without surgical repair, a young competitive athlete with instable shoulders may endure greater damage to their shoulder joint and develop other problems associated with instability. In those athletes with instable shoulder(s) looking to find the best course of treatment, it appears that in comparison to an open or arthroscopic Bankart Repair, an athlete has only minimal choices in treating their instability. Some of these choices entail the use of anti-inflammatory medications such as Aleve, Naproxen, or simply Advil, modifying the activity that aggravates the injury, physical therapy, which helps increase the muscle strength of the shoulder(s), and/or stopping the activity overall. On the contrary however, for countless competitive athletes, these choices are sometimes not enough, or yet, do not help, and the decision to end their sport is out of the question. With surgery as the remaining option, there are many considerations that first need to be looked into. For example, Matsen and Warme (2008), claim that athletes who should forego surgery will have had experienced persistent occurrences of â€Å"shoulder subluxation or dislocation, who continue to have instability despite an adequate trial of physical therapy† (Bankart Repair). Additionally, Matsen and Warme (2008) state that surgery is also an option for athletes with a-traumatic instability who â€Å"have not responded to a well-conducted rehabilitation program (Bankart repair). Nevertheless, the decision for an open or arthroscopic Bankart Repair is the best solution for athletes with instable shoulders who have sought out alternative treatments, that of which have failed, and wish to continue on with their sport. In shoulder instability surgery, the labrum, which is profoundly damaged, and the ligaments found in the shoulder, are recognized and then repaired back to the glenoid, or socket. More specifically, there are two separate surgical procedures that can be done in rep airing instable shoulder(s). The first procedure entails arthroscopy, which is a closed surgical technique that uses a small camera (an arthroscope) to be inserted through a small incision â€Å"to examine or repair the tissues inside or around the shoulder joint† as described by the Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia (2007), and the second is an open surgical procedure called an open Bankart Repair. According to Matsen and Warme (2008), an open Bankart Repair â€Å"securely restores the attachment of the labrum and the ligaments to the edge of the glenoid socket† (Bankart repair). Nonetheless, the Bankart procedure re-attaches the torn ligaments of the shoulder to the proper places, allowing for restoration of normal function. In comparing surgery with other treatments, such as physical therapy, anti-inflammatory medications, etc, it has been theorized by numerous Orthopaedic surgeons and as stated above, that with on-going instability in competitive athletes who have undergone other treatments, surgery is the best solution, especially if the athlete does not wish to give up their sport. Matsen and Warme (2008) have asserted that with traumatic anterior shoulder instability, surgical stabilization has been found to have the most dependable results with the use of an open Bankart Repair. Moreover, it has been said that the use of surgery to stabilize the shoulder is the â€Å"most effective method to restore comfort and eliminate the symptoms† (Bankart repair). In addition, Matsen and Warme (2008) also state that repair for frequent traumatic instability has an â€Å"excellent chance of restoring much of the lost comfort and function to the unstable shoulder† (Bankart repair). Furthermore, according to Mahaffey and Smith (1999), it is believed by countless Orthopedic surgeons that the option for surgical repair, whether through arthroscopy or by an open Bankart Repair, should be placed under great consideration for athletes under the age of 25 to prevent any further incidences of â€Å"anterior dislocation and arthritic changes† (Shoulder instability in young athletes). What is more is that Mahaffey and Smith (1999), argued that early arthroscopic surgery represents a change in the approach, where results of studies have illustrated that arthroscopic repair has been beneficial in reducing the rate of recurrent dislocation (Shoulder instability in young athletes). Mahaffey and Smith (1999) also allege that even in athletes engaged in contact sports, â€Å"the incidence of recurrent dislocation is only ten to twenty percent following arthroscopic surgery. Re-dislocation occurs in some athletes, however, about five years after surgery† (Shoulder instability in young athletes). Even more so, Mahaffey and Smith (1999) state that the recurrence of instability after an open Bankart repair is â€Å"three to seven percent,† and â€Å"four to twenty-five percent† with arthroscopic surgery. Additionally, Wahl and Slaney (2005) declare that without surgery, competitive athletes who persistently sublux or dislocate their shoulder(s) on a regular basis, could potentially lose valuable time in their sport, and/or worse: cause permanent damage to their shoulder joint or risk the development of premature arthritis (Arthroscopic shoulder surgery). More so, according to King, he alleged that many studies have displayed that competitive athletes with unstable shoulder(s) or those athletes who have dislocated or sublux their shoulder at a younger age, â€Å"are much more likely to continue to have problems with instability without surgical treatment† (Shoulder instability), which also agrees with earlier references made by Mahaffey and Smith (1999). Moreover, Wahl and Slaney (2005) argue that with the use of medications, when in comparison to surgery, that there have been no medications found that are capable of treating excess instability of the shoulder joint that athletes can develop with frequent dislocation or subluxation. Nevertheless, the only roles that any medication plays with shoulder instability is its capability of masking the pain that coincides with shoulder instability and unrelenting dislocations and to make the athlete more comfortable. What’s more is that with surgery, such as arthroscopic surgery, an Orthopaedic surgeon is able to specifically isolate the contributing factors of instability. These factors can include â€Å"tears of the glenoid socket ‘lip’ (or ‘labrum’), tears of the shoulder capsule and ligaments, bony fractures of the glenoid socket or humeral head, the integrity of the rotator cuff tendons, or excessive laxity or volume of the shoulder capsule† (Arthroscopic shoulder surgery), where other techniques such as physical therapy, works only with the surrounding muscles of the shoulder joint. More so, physical therapy may only help with control of an instable shoulder, and not allow for the shoulder to become completely stabilized. In addition, Matsen and Warme (2008) also asserted that for competitive athletes with traumatic instability, a surgical repair enables an Orthopaedic surgeon to distinctively repair the location of injury, therefore giving the shoulder joint restoration to proper functioning for the athlete. Lastly, according to McFarland and Petersen, they declare that given the options of either modifying the activity that provokes a competitive athletes injury, or subsiding the activity overall, surgical treatment is the better alternative for those individuals â€Å"not willing to give up the activities or sports which provoke their episodes† (Sports medicine & shoulder surgery). Moreover, McFarland and Peterson also state that with surgery, the recurrence of instability â€Å"is low (three to five percent),† which is an agreement with the findings from Mahaffey and Smith (1999). Additionally, Khalfayan claims since a labral tear cannot heal normally and the joint capsule is stretched, surgery is recommended when non-surgical treatment, like physical therapy, is not successful. Furthermore, Khalfayan also emphasizes that with young athletes, â€Å"the risk of re-dislocation can be as high as 90 percent with non-operative treatment. Therefore, in select patients or athletes, surgery may be recommended after a first-time dislocation. The re-dislocation rate after surgery is as low as five percent as compared to as high as 90 percent without surgery† (OPA Ortho). All in all, many competitive and/or professional athletes are prone to, or have inherited, instable shoulder(s) and are repeatedly faced with the decision to either quit their sport or undergo elective surgery if other treatments, such as physical therapy, anti-inflammatory medications, etc, have failed. It is apparent that through much evidence, that an open or arthroscopic Bankart Repair is the most conceivable resolution in correcting on-going shoulder instability in competitive athletes who have not improved through therapy and want to continue with their sport. It has been greatly substantiated that without surgical repair, professional and/or competitive athletes, especially those who are young and still growing, will continue to sublux or dislocate their shoulders and cause greater damage to the shoulder joint itself and even allow for premature arthritis to develop. Nevertheless, surgery is needed for those athletes suffering from instability and who want to continue participating in their sport. By either choosing arthroscopic surgery, or an open Bankart Repair, the use of stabilized shoulders can endure a competitive and/or professional athlete to grow and excel in their sport. References

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Practicum Journal 1 Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Practicum Journal 1 - Term Paper Example Be sure to delete any blank pages that appear between the weekly entries. Note: This document will serve as a cumulative journal. For each submission, you will add to the document so it contains all of your journal entries. Using no fewer than three peer-reviewed sources, analyze what you have observed within the context of your specialty using appropriate concepts, principles, and theories, giving special attention to observed events that vary from scholarly literature. (30 points) Explain how the problem, situation, or issue was handled in a manner that is consistent and a manner that is inconsistent with the theory, concepts, and principles detailed in the evidence. (30 points) There was a situation during my practicum experience where a day shift nurse was running over at 7.30 pm consequent to a patient experiencing a seizure 30 minutes prior. The day shift nurse could therefore not hand off all her patients as she was behind schedule. When the nurse supervisor was called, the night nurse stated that the situation would cause her to start her shift late and that it was unfair to her. According to Berkenstadt et al. (2008, p.159), the outgoing nurse must inform incoming nurse in regards to "Patient status and care, treatment and service, and any recent or anticipated changes in the condition of the patient". Conversely, bedside shift reports have become the conventional technique of handing off as it increases levels of patient satisfaction (Wakefield, Ragan, Brandt, and Tregnago, 2012). The fact that the night shift complained of unfairness is proof that she was not inclined towards bedside report hand off as an option as dictated by scholarly literature. A research aimed at establishing effective ways for hand offs cited by Philibert (2009, p.261) showed that "Frequent and time-constrained hand offs may frustrate the aims of the duty hour limits". This finding validates the night shift nurses concern that her shift would be affected. In terms of

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Mozart Effect Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Mozart Effect - Essay Example Participants who listened to a piece of Mozart music 10 minutes before completing a spatial ability assignment requiring mental concentration improved drastically than those who had 10 minutes of silence or those who had 10 minutes of verbal relaxation tape. The effect occurred when the participants were tested immediately and the improved ability disappeared within an hour. This brought another aspect of Mozart effect that it was temporal. The size of the effect when measured was an equivalent of 8 to 9 IQ points. Mozart effect can be described as the effect felt after listening to particular pieces of Mozart music. From the experiment, it is interesting to see how music can have effect on the reasoning of a human being. An improvement in the ability to contain mental images from physical objects within a short time is quite tremendous. During my listening experiment, I choose one of the Mozart’s compositions called Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major. The sonata is a melody and it consists of three movements; allegro con spirito, andante and molto allegro. The first movement allegro con spirito begins in a D major which sets the tone with a strong introduction. Both pianos set the theme simultaneously. In the second movement andante the pace is very relaxed and the melody played by both pianos. In this movement there is no strong climax. The third movement molto allegro begins with a racing theme. The reason for this choice is that the music is a melody. I wanted to feel the same effect felt during the Rauscher experiment. It is one of the Mozart’s piano compositions and it reflects the intelligence of the composer. It has no verbal phrases and it is quite fascinating when listening to it. Mozart music can be effectively used in improving learning abilities. Its ability to improve spatial and temporal reasoning tasks will be helpful in providing therapy. It can be used as a therapy for children with learning

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Democracy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

Democracy - Essay Example Democracy has certain salient characteristics to it that makes it the most favorite and also distinguishes it from other forms of governments and rulings. Elections are held after a constant time period mostly four to five years. The prime minister is the head of state in a democratic state. A republic state is one where the President enjoys more power and authority than the Prime Minister. The rules of business are devised through a constitution which is either in written form or in oral. Parliament is the place where representatives of the people gather and discuss the local and national issues. Local parliaments are in place on state and province level. This is one of the dominant forms of government across the world. With nearly three fourth of the countries on earth being democratic. It is considered as sign of the freedom and level prosperity. The relatively progressive nations of the world are stressing for implementation of democracy in those parts of the world where dictator ship and non representative form of government is in place. India is the country with second largest population and is the largest democracy. The notable feature of Indian democracy is the fact that it has never been derailed by the forceful overthrow of the dictators and Army unlike many countries. One of the centre of attractions in Southern Asia and came into existence in 1947 along side its neighbor Pakistan with whom the ties have never been too friendly. The last elections were held in 2009. Member of the Sikh community Manmohan Singh is the prime minister of the country and represents the Congress party. Though the rising population is a serious concern yet, the stable state of institutions and direct election of people’s representatives holds the key to the progress of nation. With the economy on the rise, India is strong contender for becoming one of the might of Asia in coming years with development in the field of science and technology and education. Democracy has a considerable role in the entire state of India as it stands currently. Tunisia is situated in Africa on the coasts of Mediterranean Sea and remained a colony of France until 1950s. However it did not get to have taste of democracy for nearly three decades and was under the reign of Habib Bourguiba. He was followed by Zine al Abidine Ben Ali. His extensive rule came to an end in 2011 when an interim government was put in place. Much is expected of the interim set up with regard to hopes for a true democracy that would be representative of the wishes of the people of Tunisia. Venezuela is situated in South America. The country is rich in natural resources, mostly the oil, coal and gold. Having mentioned the natural resources, the bulk of the population still lives below the poverty line and inflation is on a constant rise. The country and its people still aspire for a true democracy with hopes of improvement in lifestyle and living, however much to the contrary the leaders most not ably the president himself is aiming at a new form of socialism. Hugo Chavez is the leader who is the lone dominant force of the entire scenario. It has been under the influence of the socialist states of the world, and most notably the former Soviet Union. The relations are quite sour on the international front, especially with the United States of America that consider the president a serious threat towards the internal stability of Venezuela and the freedom and prosperity of the people of

Monday, August 26, 2019

Mini case Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Mini case - Essay Example The assistance and training to be offered to Kay would be first to evaluate her performance based on the achievement of set goals. This evaluation would provide analysis for advising her on the next steps to take to improve. A review of the bonus remuneration to appreciate the efforts Kay puts in her work. A review of the rise in ranks in the company and recognition of the efforts Kay has put to place the company where it is currently. If I were Dave Parrett, I would simply sit down with Kay; explain to her the situation about the management and explain to her about the consequences of her recent performance. After this I would then advise her on the need and ways to redeem her reputation back at the company. I would advise her to consult with the younger salespeople in the company to get their views of their work, and get fresh new ideas on improving her work tactics. Salespeople, like any other workers, have a ‘work span’ in the company based on their performance. They many have great influence on the business based on their performance. The best thing to do with salespersons that are no longer great is to give them a consultancy role in the company so that they may aid decision making with their expertise and

Sunday, August 25, 2019

System of Inquiry Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 1

System of Inquiry Paper - Essay Example The basic purpose of a compliance program for following the code of ethics is to help the employees at all levels and functions within the organization to work together and achieve the broader and narrower goals and objectives in such a way as to be consistent with standards of ethical behavior. The ethics compliance program and the system of inquiry is an essential part of the learning process for the organization. It is recognized as a good practice to always evaluate the ethics program, although as a matter of fact, few organizations actually do so. On top of that, such programs normally have not demonstrated that the expected program outcomes were achieved. Still, the program could be deemed a success, if it at least met the minimum requirements. In this context, it is no longer a question of whether to inquire into one’s ethics compliance program, but rather to design a system of inquisition that goes about implementing it across a span of time. The following pages will delve into the framework for the system of inquiry and the related issues during its design and implementation. The Code of Ethics Process Evaluation is designed to analyze how successful program implementation was. It is also designed to monitor which of the activities within the program were performed and to what extent. An instance of process activities and their corresponding output measure is the standards and procedures written and published through annual training courses in ethics. Regarding the participants of such courses, the extent that specific skills and knowledge were recollected at various periods of time after the training is an important indicator. And finally, the measure of participants’ satisfaction during the training is another valuable piece of data. From the point of view of the inquirer, these program activities and their outputs have negligible value in and of themselves, especially when it comes to forming remedial actions. Their value is

Saturday, August 24, 2019

The Construction Management Method for Public Sector Building Projects Research Paper

The Construction Management Method for Public Sector Building Projects - Research Paper Example Robert Black in his report of June 2004 listed the main cause of the delays to the project as the production of detailed design variations and the late supply of information during the construction. He, however, sighted other factors that contributed to the delays. One factor was the choice of construction management as a method of procuring the project. The Auditor-General commented that construction management is unsuited for most building projects in the public sector. He, however, sighted that construction management was not necessarily the wrong choice in the Holyrood case. It was only unfortunate that in the Holyrood case project management did not implement construction management fully in accordance with usual practice. The experience and expertise in construction management were not present in the early stages of the Holyrood project and therefore the risks and challenges were not fully appreciated by the client and project management. Wanna [2004] described this program as a very tight and far too ambitious construction program. This is so because in construction management the design is incomplete and uncertain when construction starts, so the risk stays with the client. The different forms of contracting are intended to transfer risk to those best able to manage it. The client must manage design development and get a project team that has professionals who are experienced in this construction method. Another major factor was the challenge of construction. This was due to the difficulties associated with the construction of such a complex and unusual building on a densely developed site. It was also expected to be completed against very tight deadlines.

Friday, August 23, 2019

International Event Destination, Manchester and the perceived benefits Essay

International Event Destination, Manchester and the perceived benefits to the city and the DMO (Marketing Manchester) - Essay Example Manchester is an exceptional event destination in the UK, which has held events such as International and European Associations Congress/ Conventions, Manchester World of Sport, and the Festival month in October. This has enhanced tourism market in Manchester and the city’s cutback as a destination. Manchester uses events as instruments to create an outstanding destination proposition, while building on their comparative advantages (Northwest Development Agency 2009). The Manchester event marketers initiate meaningful conversation, at the right time, with many potential visitors to their destination through Marketing Manchester. Marketing Manchester leads the City’s Creative Tourist, which is a pathfinder initiative where the City’s museums and galleries have collaborated to develop the offer, and to communicate with culturally active tourism markets across the UK and overseas (Tassiopoulos 2006). Additionally, Marketing Manchester actively partakes in supporting Chetham’s School of Music in the development of part of the site as a tourist attraction alongside Manchester Cathedral. It also collaborates with the National Football Museum in upgrading the marketing strategy in the lead-in to the opening, and with MOSI, which is significant in the industrial heritage story (Visit Manchester). Marketing Manchester focuses on the tourist financial strategic control, promotion, digital content media, commercial tourism, and the growth of its financial activities. It worked with the MVIC to redevelop its tourism website completely. The website was developed so that it becomes content generated and able to reflect the people’s opinions regarding Manchester (VisitBritain 2006). As a practical Destination Marketing Organization, the Marketing Manchester works with Manchester Airport, in the promotion of the City’s services internationally. Through the collaboration with the target airline, certain

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Roles in homeland security Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Roles in homeland security - Essay Example Homeland Defense refers to the provision of security to the US domestic population, sovereignty, territory, and important infrastructure against threats and aggression that are external (Bullock, et al. 2013). The threat that America faces requires a bigger commitment with the individual citizens as they act as the eyes and ears of the US homeland security physical and organizational structures. The public are informed why and where given locations and actions are targets for terrorists, the things that are being done to make these targets safe and how they can be useful. The citizens are not supposed to fuel any fear to a nation that is already troubled. The major role that the individual citizens play is advancing social capital. This is through developing and maintaining social networks. These social networks are vital for providing help and information appropriate for traumatic stress management. Citizens can also volunteer to help emergency responders, community safety and disaster relief (Charvat, et al. 2012). Citizens are urged to become members of programs like Community Emergency Response Training (CERT) and Citizens Corps. They can also join local and state programs of the same nature. The state and local governments provides fast reactions and consequence minimization to attacks that happen despite all the great effort by the federal system to keep from happening. The local government prepares for the effect management role. They pay a big deal of concentration to prevention efforts. Even though they do t do much in this regard. Consequential management is a very crucial mission. First responders are prepared to deal with biological, chemical, or large explosive attacks (Abbott, et al 2010). These programs have not been always focused and efficient, they have become better as their level of funding is

Gender Stereotypes in Gary Winick’s Bride Wars Essay Example for Free

Gender Stereotypes in Gary Winick’s Bride Wars Essay 2009 has not exactly been a fruitful year—so far—for the American filmmaking industry, at least in terms of quality and originality. If the latter part of 2008, as in most years, was marked by the release of some of the most memorable films in history, the first four months of 2009 have mostly made-for-children movies, romantic comedies, and guy-bonding flicks. Bride Wars is a relatively superficial take on women’s obsession with weddings, and is currently ranked at number nine in the list of top-grossing films worldwide. Directed by Gary Winick and starring Anne Hathaway and Kate Hudson, Bride Wars narrates the lifelong friendship of Emma and Liv—women in their mid-20s who, as young girls, made plans for almost identical weddings. When they hire the same wedding planner who schedules them both on the same time, day, and venue, the conflict begins and the ‘wars’ take place. A series of impossible schemes hatched by each to hinder the other’s plans ensues, yet ultimately end in happy endings for both. Despite its arguable shallowness and lack of believability, Bride Wars may still be evaluated according to specific themes inherent in the discussion of the female psyche: conforming to cultural and social traditions, particularly in terms of gender roles and expectations. The pivotal scene is revealed at the very beginning of the film, as the young Emma and Liv are shown with their respective mothers at The Plaza Hotel, an upscale location for weddings. They both witness a newly-married couple—the groom looking dashing in a suit and the bride in an exquisite gown—in a moment of utter romance and love; this singular image drives both girls to make a pact to have their own weddings in the same place. But more than the desire to be wed at The Plaza, the most notable element in this scene is the accepted—even expected—notion of marriage, without essentially considering the function of the process as a partnership. By being presented with an image that fully conforms to the traditional concept of women and their social roles, the young girls immediately associate this with their own goals and ambitions. Though later scenes show how they both pursued their individual interests—public relations for Liv and teaching for Emma—it is apparent how getting married is still their priority. The concept of marriage in this film is limited to the actual wedding, with a few flimsy forays into the discussion of sharing a life with another person. That first image set the boundaries of the ideology chosen by the filmmaker, as evidenced by the dreamlike treatment accorded to it; it sends the message of perfection and idealism as befitting women by being a bride. After all the events that had taken place, Emma and Liv kept their friendship and even resulted in Emma marrying Liz’ brother Nate. Unsurprisingly, the last scene proved to be the answer to the first—with the two women meeting after their honeymoons, and revealing that they were both pregnant. It is evident how this scene was meant to provide the punchline to the film, leaving its audience assuming that the same ‘war’ would take place later. However, it also reinforces the established parameters set by weddings, since pregnancy and giving birth is the traditional next step after the union. The happy occasion of revelation and reconnection exhibits the place of childbirth in the context of the female role, yet it fails again to make any argument regarding the personal significance of bearing children. Bride Wars, though peppered with pup culture references and modern concepts, is centuries behind in terms of gender issues and breaking free from stereotypes. Light romances and comedies are not strictly confined to such superficial subjects, which shows why Bride Wars is a film only meant for commercial objectives. How We Think, Speak, and Feel: An Understanding of Human Behavior in Three Films Visitors from another planet are perhaps the best test subjects for the assessment of texts, particularly films. Since cinema is a depiction of human behavior and portrays concepts gleaned from human experience, having extraterrestrials view films—given that they understand the language—will allow them to achieve a sense of what and how humans are. Rather than take them through a historical representation of human life through films, it would be best to introduce them to the inherent traits found in most cultures—through intelligence, language, and psychology. The three films that may be able to communicate these are A Beautiful Mind for intelligence, When Harry Met Sally for language, and Doubt for psychology and its permutations. Ron Howard’s 2001 film A Beautiful Mind is based on the life of gifted scientist and mathematician John Forbes Nash, and narrates his journey into schizophrenia and depression. But the film is also a real-life account of a man given an extraordinary amount of talent, which shows the extent to which the human mind can progress. This information would be essential to the extraterrestrial visitors, for it will let them know how humans think; whether it reveals similarities or not is the ultimate goal of the exercise. Since Nash’s expertise is in numbers and formulas, logic is the knowledge represented in the film, which may be more ‘universal’ compared to politics, economics, or other contextual topics. In the film, Nash is shown as having his own world apart from the people around him, only surrounding himself with equations and other methods pertaining to scientific and explainable phenomena. This is clearly presented in the scene where he writes his formulas on a glass window, consumed by the process and unaffected by his environment. Seeing a human engage in such intellectual activity may inform extraterrestrials of the workings of the human mind, specifically this advanced depiction of thinking processes. On top of that, Nash’s account of seeing UFOs and aliens may appear to be a point of connection with this particular audience, as it shows how human validate their existence. The 2008 film Doubt, directed by John Patrick Shanley, is set in a Catholic Church in New York in 1964. During this time, the notions of faith and religion were primarily dictated by priests—portrayed as almost immortal beings who could do no wrong. However, assumptions about the unusual behavior of Father Flynn, the parish priest, were made by the nuns tasked to care for and educate the children in the school run by the church. The result was doubt in authority and in the general power of organized religion, and eventually in the faith of the nuns in their chosen vocation. Introducing the alien guests to these concepts will acquaint them with the complex values and traditions of humans, which are directly associated with the idea of faith in a Higher Being. The image of Father Flynn is meant to symbolize faith itself, and accusing him of improper behavior—in this case, an illicit relationship with a young boy—shows how humans are capable of acting against established rules. What the aliens may glean from this could be the debate between the human need for something to believe in, whether seen or unseen, and the alternative human quality of logical analysis based on observable phenomena. When Harry Met Sally, released in 1989 and directed by Nora Ephron, is one of the most effective portrayals of the differences between men and women. Language is one of the issues illustrated by the film, and it would benefit the extraterrestrials to see how men and women think and express themselves differently. The film narrates the friendship of Harry and Sally, which eventually ended in romance after years of struggling to keep it platonic. The iconic scene where Harry and Sally are in a restaurant arguing over sexual attitudes of men and women reveals both mindset and language, as their discussion is progressed by their opposing views and the final act of Sally faking an orgasm. Aliens and non-humans will find this portrayal extremely significant, for it almost shows how men and women are of different life forms as well. It also illustrates the mating habits of both men and women, which may be similar to their own. These three films will definitely equip the extraterrestrials with enough information and knowledge to guide them toward a better understanding of human behavior. But while these films tackle some of the basic realities present in most societies all over the world, more complicated concepts—such as war and poverty—can only be understood after fully comprehending the abilities and capacities of humans, since these are effects of a misguided use of innate human traits. References Ephron, N. (Dir. ) (1989). When Harry Met Sally. Columbia Pictures. Howard, R. (Dir. ) (2001). A Beautiful Mind. Universal Pictures. Shanley, J. P. (Dir. ) (2008). Doubt. Miramax Films. Winick, G. (Dir. ) (2009). Bride Wars. 20th Century Fox.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Quality Of Life Based On Minimalism Cultural Studies Essay

Quality Of Life Based On Minimalism Cultural Studies Essay Minimalism is a movement where everything is reduced to the most essential part. It stress on the functionality of space. Likewise, it is not only the movement but also a way of life. The important part that is promoted in minimalism shows the vital aspect that we need to look at. In our busy life, we sometimes forget about what we really need. Appreciation of life is being forgotten by the work especially in a hectic country like developed country. Today, this movement is well developed in Japan even though at first this movement came in the west. Minimalism adapt flexibly with their culture. What challenging of the application in this country where the rate of population is quite high while there is no enough space is will it survive. The capability of minimalism in this country proves that Minimalism is still relevant up until today. Hence, it improve the quality of life by slowing the time inside the space in contrast with whats happening outside. This is not only suitable in Japan but also in other country. Of course, it is not applicable in the same way as they do it in Japan. The most important thing is the capability of Minimalism to improve the quality of life through architecture. High quality of life conveys happiness to the users. So where should Minimalism in architecture start? Should the behavior come as the primary aspect or should the behavior be shaped by architecture? After Art Nouveau era die, Modernism born as the consequences of an economic inflation. People no longer looked at an ornament but more to the utilitarian object, a form without ornament. This movement started in Germany when Walter Gropius built an academic institution called Bauhaus in 1919. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was a founder of form of modern industrial design. He was designing a steel chair which was new on that period.. It was no longer in flamboyant form, on the contrary the form is geometric and have a modern looked . A few years after that, Gropius and Mies as well as with Le Corbusier who believes in Purism and Cubism worked together and discovered an International modern Architecture called Art Deco. This movement was not only influenced England but also America. In Modernism, architecture was created based on the functionality of the space. On the other hand, in 1950s, Free Flow movement came. The form of the design in this period is curve. There was a problem in the politic of Germany that caused some of the artist moving to America and it influenced the next movement in 1960s. Op Art Minimalism and Pop Art were born. Op Art and Minimalism have the same characteristic: strong geometric elements, yet Pop Art emphasises on the good design. As the public reaction away from purity design, Pop Art had quite a big influence to their desire of colour and ornament up until today. The background above shows that Minimalism rooted in Modernism. The fundamental of Modernism is being developed to the Minimalism. Both Modernism and Minimalism, used clean lines and pure geometric form, but Minimalism pursues the essential of quality as a prime objective. Franco Bertoni in his book titled Minimalist Architecture said that a simplicity that exalts the true values of life and eliminates all that is superfluous and misleading around us and obscures recognition of the essential. That is why Minimalism is about discovering the ideal. According Gunter in his book titled Japanese Gardens (2003, p10), Japanese sense of beauty is the veneration of the unique in nature and the perfection of the man-made type. It shows that Japanese possession of best craftsmanship has been existed since then and it has become their nature. Man always makes Japanese garden by isolating selected forms of nature. Creating Japanese garden is not just as simple as putting nature into a framework even so there are some fix requirement and order. Japanese garden is created contextually. It shows on the landscape of Japanese garden that imitate the landscape of Japan, no flat plains. As the reflection of civilization, Shinto is influenced the design of Japanese garden, the veneration of nature and sense of purity which still they convey until this generation. The Japanese believe that nature is the abode of deity. Moreover, they believe that the form of the Japanese architecture is given by nature. Nature is one of the crucial elements in architecture, especially in Japan Minimalism. Without nature, minimalism is not complete. ii. Influence of Western modernism In 1930s, Japan experienced modernization whereby western modernism was being adopted and overlapped Japan modernism. It was supported by the arrival of Kenzo Tange and Maekawa, who worked in Le Corbusiers. Their design is underlay on modern western architecture. Tange was the one who refuse about the fundamental of Japanese architecture. His thinking took part in western thinking, which is the space that human wrested from nature. In 1950s Japonica came under the influence of America. The marriage with west modernism enriches Minimalism and strengthens its fundamental, which was fertile in ancient times. Nevertheless, it does not omit any element of Japan Minimalism. The space of Japanese architecture is now not only spatial and performative but also constructive and objective. Strong culture of Japan makes the Minimalism in Japan become unique even though it is influenced by external influence, the west. Modernism as the root of Minimalism came in German in 1900s. Through the influence from the west, Japan (the east) reinforces their identity in Minimalism. As it was explained before, Japanese culture and the foundation of Minimalism have a strong relationship. It is an inheritance from their ancestor. What is different in the East Minimalism is the infusion of culture. Minimalism flexibly adapts with the culture of Japan and creates their own characteristic. That is why the Japan-ness of Minimalism could be felt in every design. Clean lines and geometric has been developed in Japan since long time ago. The possession of perfection is compatible with the cleanliness of Minimalism. Both of these Minimalism embrace their relationship with surrounding, nature. Nature is one of the essential elements in Minimalism in the West. Nature gives the feeling of neutrality. What comes from the nature is comforting and easy to be adapted. The interaction with nature is achieved by bring the nature inside even if it just a visual connection just like what Japanese did in Japanese garden. From these two examples of similarities, we could see that Minimalism is flexible and adaptable to the society, but the fundamental cannot be changed. d. Characteristic of Minimalism The essential elements in Minimalism are repetition, reduction and neutrality. It is about designing with maximum simplicity inside and out by putting mass, light, landscape, order, containment, essence and expression. The quality of mass and volume is the most visible elements. The solidity is reflected on the physical appearance. This solidity and form corporate at the same time and create a prominent imagery of minimalism. Nature elements such as light and landscape play quite a big role in enriching minimalism. Light gives the sense of divineness to the space. Minimalism is not complete without the presence of nature. The element of nature is not only brought outside but also inside, a blurry connection. According to Pawson, order in Minimalism is about reconsidering received wisdom and searching for essential. Containment determines on the openness of the space. Typical minimalist architecture has an open plan and the openings are placed based on in-depth consideration. Even though Minimalism shows simplicity, it is expressive. Its visual imagery speaks about the history, economics and also they way people live are. Back to the essence of minimalism, repetition is practically being used in minimalist architecture. The used of repetition is comforting. Without similarities, difference could not be recognized. Repetition is geometric shape which derived from Modernism movement, pure form. While other movement is trying to explore the form, Minimalism keeps its appreciation to the pure of form. The reduction is created to evoke serenity of space and reveal textures. The importance of reduction is to emphasize on functionality and the relation with its surrounding because minimalism is about the composition of the holistic. This aspect is referred back to Less is More (Mies van der Rohe) which is show the aesthetic of the building by eliminating and showing the purity of forms. Less is more was developed by Le Corbusier who coined the purism by the meaning of style where flat surface must be pure, smooth, and white. The colour of white gives the sense of neutrality and shows purification. Neutrality is being promoted to emphasize the holistic so that none of the elements will stand out by itself but they will support each other as one. 2. Quality of Life and Social Environment are One Quality of life is a degree which a person enjoys the important possibilities of their life. It is the basic standard of human being that must be achieved in order to achieve well-being. There are three categories of quality of life: being, belonging and becoming. Being includes the personal well-being. Belonging is the happiness between one and social environment while becoming is the happiness between one and the their daily activities. All of these aspects are in relation with social environment because one cannot stand-alone by itself. Environment affects well-being. People happiness depends on the interaction between each of individual and the environment. The significant example is between human and nature, for example temperature. The temperature of the place affects humans mood. If the temperature is appropriate and humans body is able to adapt the temperature, humans mood will not be disturb. It is applied not only in temperature terms but also so in other aspects. We know that Japan is one of the busiest place on earth. Hectic life and high standard of living do not guarantee the high of quality of life. Because of the hectic life, basic needs of human being are usually being forgotten. Nature takes a quite a part in the degree of quality of life. As it is explained before, Japan in ancient times had a strong relationship with nature. Their relation with nature could improve the degree of quality of life and so does in other busy country. Not forgetting other country, the quality of life need to be maintained or even improved so that people could live in even a better environment that give a better affection in our daily life. The reaction of someone on himself, society and surrounding is the measurement of the quality of life. What is the most important on quality of life is, first, to fulfill the basic needs of human being. 3. The way to improve well-being in architecture People spend most of their time in building (architecture) that is why improving well-being in architecture is decent. We eat, sleep, work and live inside architecture. In order to improve the quality of life in architecture, should the architecture created based on behaviorolgy or based on the needs of human being? Good architecture is an architecture that offers happiness to the users. a. Architecture Based on Behaviorology One of the ways to improve quality of life through architecture is creating architecture based on behaviorology. Behaviorology is an independently organized discipline featuring the natural science of behavior. Behaviorologists study the functional relations between behavior and its independent variables in the behavior-determining environment. This study also involves the study of the environment; nature and building. Each of the elements has their own behavior that is distinct from one another. Hence, each element will interact and affect one another. There are three things that we need to look based on behaviorology: the behavior of human beings, nature, and building. As a human being, we know that we are the most conscious and have a big role to control things around us. We could sense the world by our senses. It is the most important thing in human life. Senses are the door to the outside world. Without it, we cannot feel the world. There are 5 senses in human body such as sense of vision, hear, feel, taste and smell. These sense stimulate human to react to their environment. All the senses except taste are appropriate in the correlation with architecture. Vision, hearing, touch, and smell are able to revive the imagination of things that we were felt before. Because of those senses we are able to react and appreciate the place we live on. Behavior of human could be investigate through a timeline, depends on what are we going to look at. The similarities of action are counted as behavior. Nature behavior follows the law physics. Nature happens outside and will enter the space. The law of nature is something that cannot be controlled by human. Compared to human behavior, nature behavior works more consistent. In this condition, architecture becomes the framework where nature will react towards the space. There is also buildings behavior. This could be examined in a quite long time period around 50 to 100 years. In this long-term period, we can see that there is a change in the language of building. The design of typical building from one period to another period shows a movement, a behavior of building. Through this analysis, we could more understand about the society and predict the next building behavior. Architecture that is based on behavior has the intention to achieve the fondness of the users. Fondness indicates high quality of life. The consideration towards these behaviors is applied to architecture. The intention of the space needs to be easy to understand. This shows that behavior shapes the architecture. Behavior is a key to achieve the happiness so that it could be easier to be adapted. People are easier to adapt in a comfortable space even though it is new for them. CASE STUDIES: Takaharu + Yui Tezuka, Atelier Bow-Wow b. Architecture Shapes Behavior It has been explained before that the vital of human being lays on senses. The sensitivity of sense force human being to react with their surrounding consciously and unconsciously. Architecture is the framework where society happens. Human reacts to environment. This reaction shows that architecture is able to shape human behavior. Some of architects, like Tadao Ando, prefer to design architecture in this way. He thinks that architecture has to understand and shape how the users should be. This is a natural reaction of human being towards the given environment. For the example, the design of traffic in a complex of house. Nowadays, people who live in a city could not be separate with car. Access of car is everywhere to make people live easier but it is not what it should be. The correlation with the car should not be embrace too much. Car gives indirect and direct bad influence. It gives pollution that makes people unhappy and separate people from the society. They are not engage to interact with one another. The environment creates an individual personality. CASE STUDY. 4.Minimalism in Maximizing the Quality of Life The basic of Minimalism is about simplicity and reduction to the essential. It emphasizes on the functionality of the space. Minimalism is omitting the unimportant to emphasize the important. Quality of life is, on the other hand, talking about the fulfillment of basic needs. By fulfilling the basic needs, quality of life could be achieved. Today, work burdens our life so that we sometimes forget about what we need to have in our life. In this context, Minimalism are being used as the reaction of hectic life where everything move very fast but when one come to Minimalist space where everything is so simple and lack of decorative, one will feel that the time moves slower. This shows that Minimalism are suitable to achieve a high quality of life. Minimalism and quality of life have the similarities, which is the achievement of basic. The unimportant need to be vanished. As it was explained before, there are two ways how Minimalism improves the quality of life. What is the fundamental t o create a Minimalism instead of putting the foundation of Minimalism? The affection to the users needs to be the biggest consideration in order to achieve good quality of life. Decoration does not affect happiness. Quality of life needs to be construct from the basic, which is why the focus attention that is being promoted in Minimalism is pertinent. Human reacts towards nature and building. Nature is humans first home. It gives human everything that they need. Interaction between human and nature always give a positive affection, which means a good quality of life. Minimalism always promotes landscape (nature) the design. Health and fondness that are generated by the interaction with nature indicate the good quality of life. According to the book titled Minimal: The Big Book of Minimalism by Alex Sanchez Vidiella (2007, p17), facade design and the integration of building with surrounding become the important topic to be explored by modern architect. This aspect enriches Minimalist design. It is proof that Minimalism is still relevant to be applied today. III. Conclusion Minimalism is not only a movement but also a way of life. The reduction to the important is relevant with the achievement of quality of life which the fulfillment of basic needs that give the well-being as a result. Well-being could be constructed through architecture where we spend most of our live inside. Minimalism should be created through the understanding of behavior to achieve the well-being. It is true that architecture is able to shape the behavior but it needs to come after that. These two ways work concurrently and cannot be separated. The thought of what the users want needs to be express through the building in a simplest way so that they understand the thought and the purpose behind it. The clarity and simplicity that is promoted in Minimalism tell about the basic to the users directly. It concludes that Minimalism as a movement and way of life, is able to improve quality of life by omitting the unimportant to emphasize the important that is applied to architecture base d on the behavior instead of creating of architecture to shape the behavior.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Two Faces Of Multiple Personality Disorder Psychology Essay

Two Faces Of Multiple Personality Disorder Psychology Essay Multiple Personality Disorder, or Dissociative Identity Disorder, as it is now identified by the American Psychiatric Association in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM IV -TR) continues to be a disputed diagnosis after decades of diagnoses, treatment, and research. Psychiatrists, medical doctors, psychologists, counselors and social workers, as well as attorneys and judges, continue to seek the validity of this mental disorder. While the primary concern of those in the medical community is a correct diagnosis in order to direct treatment, the legal community relies on a proper diagnosis to determine both guilt and sentencing for those who use the diagnosis to plead a not guilty by reasons of insanity defense. Despite the lengthy battle between the opposing sides debating the actual existence of the disorder, the disorder will be included in the May 2013 edition of the DSM V. Neither the medical nor the legal community doubts the need for therapy or counseling of some form for these patients. However, the proper treatment is, or should be, directly related to an accurate diagnosis. Determining the validity of Multiple Personality Disorder continues to be, after all these years, a serious concern. The question remains, Is there sufficient scientific research to prove the validity of Multiple Personality Disorder? I was 23 years old when the movie When the Rabbit Howls aired on television. The true story film adaptation of Truddi Chases story of extreme child abuse and subsequent diagnosis and treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder was a horrific tale of severe family dysfunction leading to vicious sexual abuse beginning at the age of two. Despite the massive volume of books I have read, the many movies watched, and the television shows viewed, none of them continue to haunt me as this movie has. Apparently, I was not alone in my fascination of Truddi Chase. Oprah Winfrey invited her to be the first guest on her radio program, as well as an early guest on her television program. Chase later returned in 1990 for a second interview on the Oprah Winfrey Show. Her appearance on the Oprah Winfrey Show was later listed as one of TV Guides Top 25 Oprah Moments. Chase claimed to have 92 distinct personalities. Despite my awe and fascination of the life of Truddi Chase, I am left wondering; is this possible? Does this disorder actually exist? To be able to blame all of our faults, sins, or shortcomings on another, someone other than our self could be the ultimate fantasy for some. If one is caught in a compromising position of sexual infidelity, drug use, driving under the influence or any other serious crime, one could simply wake up and claim someone else did this, another self. To walk benignly through life accepting responsibility for only the noble deeds we perform, the good we display, would that not be the best of all possible lives? Perhaps. Or perhaps it is a life of tormented existence, lost time, forgotten experiences, disrupted, fragmented pieces of a life half lived. While some claim Multiple Personality Disorder was diagnosed as early as the 1800s, the first famous or possibly infamous case in the United States was the case of Christine Costner in 1951. The classic 1957 film, The Three Faces of Eve was the story of Dr. Corbett Thigpen, a young neuropsychiatrist who treated Christine Costner (called Eve White to protect her identity) in 1951. The existence of more than one personality became manifested gradually during treatment, in 1952. After about 100 therapy sessions over 2-3 years, Ms. Costner seemed well. Ms. Costner subsequently wrote three autobiographical books. She revealed her identity in 1977 (as Chris Costner Sizemore, her married name). She has claimed that she actually had about 20 personalities, that they were not resolved until years after her treatment with Dr. Thigpen, and that they were not the result of childhood trauma, as she had reported during treatment. (Atkinson, 2009) Even after this rather dubious case, the disorder did not fully manifest itself until after the renowned story of Sybil in the 1970s. Sybil was a television miniseries, based on a 1973 book by science journalist Flora Rheta Schreiber. Sybil Dorsett was a pseudonym for the patient, Shirley Ardell Mason. Dr. Schieber was asked to write a book by the patients psychiatrist, Dr. Cornelia Wilbur while Dr.Herbert Spiegel was asked by Dr. Wilbur to consult on the case as a hypnotist. The hypnotist reported he did not think that Ms. Mason had MPD, he believed Dr. Wilbur had suggested this to her patient, and that Ms. Masons allusions to separate personalities amounted to game playing in a hysterical patient prone to dissociation. He said that Ms. Mason told him that she had read The Three Faces of Eve during her therapy and was impressed by it. According to Dr. Spiegel, Ms. Schreiber visited him and said, But if we dont call it a multiple personality, we dont have a book! The publisher wants it to be that; otherwise it wont sell. After treatment (more than 2,000 sessions), Ms. Mason always maintained the truth of her claims of experiencing multiple personalities (16 in all) and childhood physical and sexual abuse by her mother. (Atkinson, 2009) After the popular movie of Sybil, the diagnosis of Multiple Personality Disorder ballooned from perhaps no more than 100 beforehand to 40,000 or more 20 years later, mainly in North America. (Atkinson, 2009) Was it merely cases of misdiagnoses? Or was this a new phenomenon, a new disorder? There are many reasons I believe the diagnosis of Multiple Personality Disorder to be faulty, overzealous, or patently untrue. I will attempt to provide both sides of this argument for or against the validity of this diagnosis as I found many professionals weighing in. Psychiatric, as well as medical diagnosis can change. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) was first published in 1952. Since then it has been through five revisions the newest edition DSM V coming out in May 2013. According to the current DSM-IV-TR, Diagnostic criteria for Dissociative Identity Disorder300.14 must include the following, A. The presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states (each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self).   B. At least two of these identities or personality states recurrently take control of the persons behavior.   C. Inability to recall important personal information that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness.   D. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., blackouts or chaotic behavior during Alcohol Intoxication) or a general medical condition (e.g., complex partial seizures).  Note:  In children, the symptoms  are not attributable to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Therefore, my first argument would be that Multiple Personality Disorders appearance in the DSM was late in being included and has changed with each issuance of the manual. Multiple Personality Disorder did not appear in the DSM until 1980, the Third Edition. The criteria and terminology changed in the 1994 DSM IV edition, and according to Helen Farrell in Current Psychology, the American Psychiatric Association Work Group has proposed new diagnostic criteria for DID for DSM-5, which is scheduled to be published in May 2013. (Farrell, 2011) I have been unable to find the proposed changes, but am anxious to see if they were approved and what those changes are. The questions remain. Why was this disorder not observed in a number of patients prior to the 1980s? Why does the criterion continue to be so difficult to define? Many of the patients diagnosed with MPD have been found to have been highly suggestible and easily hypnotizable, with a tendency to fantasize, and unreliable in their counseling sessions. Roland Atkinson reports Subjects who are highly hypnotizable (virtuosos) may self-induce trance states or respond to a therapists instruction to enter such a state with rudimentary, or even unwitting, cues. Thus, personalities may also have been cued, even if they seemed to have emerged spontaneously. In such circumstances, patient and therapist alike may inadvertently and honestly believe in an MPD diagnosis, and in memories of childhood trauma, which are not valid. This may have occurred in the filmed cases; that is, both may have been at least partly iatrogenic in origin. (Atkinson, 2009) Iatrogenic means Induced in a patient by a physicians activity, manner, or therapy. (Dictionary, 2000). In fact, it is not until the person is in therapy do they become aware of the multiple personalities. (Leuder Sharrock, 1999) (Murray, 1994) The patient becomes aware of these alter egos through regression therapy or hypnosis. Most of the patients discover they were sexually abused as children, causing such trauma, the child forms another personality to deal with the pain and mental stress. (Piper Jr., 1998) The argument for the lateness in the diagnosis of MPD in patients is the clients use of repression, denial, and rationalization. According to John Murray in The Journal of Genetic Psychology, the alter egos may present themselves only during a window of diagnosibility and be unable to detect at later times, remaining latent in the patient. (Murray, 1994)The MPD symptoms may be present in one session only to disappear in another, much like bipolar depression symptoms. The issue of childhood sexual abuse also becomes an issue of concern in the MPD diagnosis due to the difficulty in proving abuse. Sexual abuse is very hard to confirm in a child, it becomes even more difficult in an adult victim of child sexual abuse. This is NOT to say the abuse never happened, merely that it is difficult to substantiate. As the clients are highly suggestible, implantation of false memories becomes easily arguable. A few of the memories are so bizarre as to be unbelievable, consider the following one patient claimed to have witnessed a baby being barbecued alive at a family picnic in a city park; another patient alleged repeated sexual assaults by a lion, a baboon, and other zoo animals in her parents back yard in broad daylight. (It should be mentioned that both therapists in these cases are prominent MPD adherents, and neither appeared to have any difficulty believing these allegations). (Piper Jr., 1998) Independent corroboration would be very helpful in cases such as these and certainly helpful in the prosecution of current cases today, but, alas, this has never been, and will doubtfully ever be, the case. The preponderance of sexually abused patients succumbing to MPD leads to another factor of the disorder. Ninety percent of the patients are women. (Atkinson, 2009), but it has been reported to have been as high as 92 percent in a 1996 study. (Murray, 1994) Ruling out gynecological concerns, I can think of no other illness with such a high rate of gender inequality. However, one must take into consideration that girls are subjected to higher rates of childhood sexual abuse than boys are. Another concern deals with how psychiatrists and other professionals diagnosis MPD. The doctors assert that they had been alerted to the possibility of MPD when a client reported such benign symptoms as headaches, insomnia, listlessness or forgetfulness. Even more ridiculous was the absolute randomness and inanity of the following diagnostic clues reported by August Piper Jr. glancing around the therapists office; frequently blinking ones eyes; changing posture, or the voices pitch or volume; rolling the eyes upward; laughing or showing anger suddenly; covering the mouth; allowing the hair to fall over ones face; developing a headache; scratching an itch; touching the face, or the chair in which one sits; changing hairstyles between sessions; or wearing a particular color of clothing or item of jewelry In one case known to the author, a leading MPD proponent claimed that the diagnosis was supported by behavior no more remarkable than the fact that the patient changed clothes several times daily and liked to wear sunglasses. (Piper Jr., 1998) With such diagnostic alerts to the doctor, one cannot be surprised at the large number of MPD cases some doctors had the opportunity to treat. MPD diagnosis and treatment became a cottage industry for some self-promoting doctors and therapists. In his article Film, fame, and the fashioning of an illness, Atkinson believed the films portraying Sybil and Eve perpetuated this mass diagnosis. Many cases shared features in common with false memory phenomena, such as the influence of coercive suggestion by therapists in producing the desired but invalid memory reports of highly susceptible patients. (Atkinson, 2009) There are many diagnostic tools used by therapists to confirm the MPD diagnosis. A few include: Structured Clinical Interview for Dissociative Disorders, Dissociative Disorder Interview Schedule, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (Farrell, 2011) (Murray, 1994), as well as the Thematic Apperception Test (T.A.T) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) (Murray, 1994). Most notable in all of these tests and diagnostic tools is that they are all self-reporting. While many would argue you cannot beat the test, I find that argument to be untrue in some cases, particularly if an eager or leading therapist coaches the patient. However, Murray contends in a blind test for 63 adult psychiatric patients, using the MMPI MPD profile, and correctly identified 68% of the 25 MPD patients. The MMPI seemed a valuable aid in diagnosing MPD. (Murray, 1994) The fact that no clear, specific method of treatment for MPD has been established also deals a blow to MPDs validity. Even staunch supporters, such as David Hartman MSW of the Wellness Institute and psychologist Dr. John B. Murray agree that there are no particular methods of treatment and that it was all still very experimental. Some of the methods currently being used are psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, behavior modification, group therapy sessions (with some difficulty, I will not mention the humor I found in this, as I was unsure if the group therapy would include multiple personalities and one physical person), psychodynamic therapy, the use of sodium amobarbital (a drug with sedative/hypnotic properties) and of course hypnotherapy. (Murray, 1994) (Piper Jr., 1998) (Hartman, An overview of the psychotherapy of dissociative identity disorder, 2010) (Hartman, Treatments for dissociative disorders, 2010)While hypnotherapy often led to the initial diagnosis, it is also part of the t reatment. However, Murray warns while Hypnosis is usually a constructive intervention, it can be misused. (Murray, 1994) And while hypnosis provides access to secret personalities, it may enhance rather than repair the dissociation process. (Murray, 1994) In his support of hypnosis, he continues, hypnosis is useful in therapy when it helps MPD patients understand and use the past and present for better self-understanding and direction. (Murray, 1994) There are several diagnoses which MPD patients could also be diagnosed. A few include, schizophrenia, affective disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, dissociative disorders other than MPD, depression, bipolar disorder, even drug abuse. Prior to the diagnosing of MPD, I would hope all other possible disorders be completely ruled out, rather than MPD being ruled in. Again, despite being a advocate of the validity of MPD, Dr. John B. Murray writes, MPD features can overlap with other psychiatric diagnoses, and clinicians have been wary of inducing MPD in patients and of treating MPD patients. (Murray, 1994) He, too, recognizes the danger of MPD inducement! Though life may often be stranger than fiction, I found the ridiculousness of the many reports derived from MPD cases to further cause my doubts of its validity. I will list several I found particularly absurd. C. A. Ross writes of alters that force [the patient] to jump in front of a truck. [The alters] then go back inside just before impact, leaving the [patient] to experience the pain (Piper Jr., 1998), or the French woman who spoke no German would suddenly speak in another language. Carter writes, as her French self, she could remember everything she had said or done during her previous French episodes. As a German woman, she knew nothing of her French personality. (Carter, 2008) Some multiple even have different immune systems and bodies, Felida X, for example, had three different personalities, each with their own illnesses. One of them even had her own pregnancy, unknown, at first, to the others. (Carter, 2008) The fact that some alter egos can create their own alter egos is a lso incongruous. Sheila claimed she consciously chose a masculine identity. (Layton, 1995) Another absurdity are the form alter egos may take according to their therapist, There are alters of people of the opposite sex, of the treating therapist, of infants, television characters, and demons. Alters of Satan and God, of dogs, cats, lobsters, and stuffed animals even of people thousands of years old or from another dimension have been reported by MPD proponents. (Piper Jr., 1998) And lastly in the area of ridiculousness, throughout the reading about MPD, I found time after time, journal article after journal article, from proponents to nay-sayers, asserting that the alter personalities identities,, alter egos, ego states, personality states or merely alters, could number two, sixteen, ninety-two, two thousand, or even ten thousand! How does a therapist keep up with these characters? After all, many are deceitful, some are aging, some stay nine years old, some will split yet again, some will be hidden, and others will be repressed. Keeping track of the multiples would create a full-time job for a therapist with a single patient! Lastly, MPD simply does not meet the legal test. Some in the legal community have said the diagnosis may be the most controversial diagnosis introduced into the criminal justice system. (Hafemeister, 2009) In fact, most recently, courts have rejected the admissibility of DID evidence, including expert testimony, because the scientific evidence failed to meet reliability standards, and therefore is not ultimately useful to the judge or jury. (Farrell, 2011) The State of West Virginia has also spoken to the validity of this controversial diagnosis, Similarly, in State v Lockhart (2000), Mr. Lockhart contested his conviction of first degree sexual assault on the basis that he was not permitted to present evidence of DID to support his insanity defense. The West Virginia Court held that the diagnosis of DID was speculative and therefore did not meet reliability standards for evidence. (Farrell, 2011) Does it matter? Does a diagnosis of Multiple Personality Disorder versus another matter? I maintain that it does. Billy Milligan, a serial rapist from Ohio in the 1970s, was excused from any criminal responsibility with his diagnosis of MPD. In Current Psychiatry, Helen M. Ferrell writes, The court declared serial rapist Billy Milligan insane due to lack of one integrated personality and therefore not culpable of the crimes he committed. Public outrage was extraordinary. Since this case, most DID defenses have not been successful. (Farrell, 2011) Public outrage was extraordinary. Indeed! I am sure it was. As I suggested previously, being able to blame all of our faults, sins, or shortcomings on another, someone other than our self, could be the ultimate fantasy for some. Commit multiple rapes? Milligan would simply wake up and claim someone else did this, his other self. Another case making this argument matter, is the woman in Chicago who consulted a psychiatrist for depression. He concluded that she suffered from MPD, that she had abused her own children, and that she had gleefully participated in Satan-worshiping cult orgies where pregnant women were eviscerated and their babies eaten. Her failure to recall these events was attributed to alters that blocked her awareness. No one had produced any evidence for the truth of any of this, no one had seen her do anything unusual, no one had come forward to say they had participated in satanic activities with her. But no matter. The doctor notified the state that the woman was a child molester. Then, after convincing her that she had killed several adults because she had been told to do so by Satanists, he threatened to notify the police about these criminal activities. The womans husband believed the doctors claims. He divorced her. And, of course, because she was a child molester, she lost custody of her children. (Piper Jr., 1998) The validity of a MPD diagnosis also matters so we, as counselors, therapists and others in the mental health field can provide appropriate treatment to these patients. For, despite the label we may wish to give an illness, the illness MUST be treated. Multiple Personality Disorder was a fad, a psychological trend, a craze, perhaps. Therapists, the public, even Oprah Winfrey, became enthralled by these captivating stories of abuse, human survival and the minds incredible fortitude. However, the diagnosis has led to more harm for the patients, abuse from malingerers, and prevented those with true mental illnesses from receiving the treatment they need and deserve.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Essay --

Srijana Chhetri Mr. Wesney Honors World History Dec.18, 2013 Industrial Revolution in England The Industrial Revolution began in England towards the late 17th century. It started in the United Kingdom and was driven by a technology system based on water power and steam engines, cotton, textiles, ironworking, river transport, and canals. These inventions made it possible to send heavy commodities such as coal, iron, wool, grain and so forth from one end of the world to another (Henderson 1, The Industrial... 1815-1914). Inventors of new machines were honored and inventions of new technology were encouraged during this time period. Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for work within the new mills and factories, but these were always accompanied by strict working conditions with long hours of labor, and often involved young children and women. The Industrial Revolution replaced an economy based on agriculture with one based on industry and manufacturing. One of the most important changes was the continuous expansion of the population and the economy. Most obse rvers in the 18th century did not believe that expansion of the population and the economy could be sustained indefinitely. Thomas Malthus argued that population naturally grows faster than the food supply, and, therefore, malnutrition, famine, and disease would correct the imbalance (Trebilcock 397-398). However, this did not take place because of the continued expansion of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution also gave an advantage to the government because the states in Europe issued tariffs to gain money, and as big companies emerged, they were required to register with the government and publish an annual budget. The societies during this ... ...e to the lack of better medicines. We could still be using subsistence agriculture to feed our family rather than commercial agriculture. Every human being on this earth should appreciate the fact that this event occurred because it has made their life so much easier and better compared to the life before the pre- industrial time. Even if some other huge revolution had occurred, instead of the Industrial Revolution, it would never be able to bring the same impact that this revolution was able to bring. The Industrial Revolution allowed people to save time with the new inventions, and also created more interactions in the global world with trade. There is no doubt that it was one of the most influential time periods of human history and most responsible for propelling society into the modern economies that we still have in place today.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Flirting and Courting Rituals of The Victorian Era :: Victorian Era

Flirting and Courting Rituals of The Victorian Era In Victorian society courting rituals were put into effect to keep the young ladies pure and the gentlemen confused. Courting usually began at balls and dances where young girls were first introduced into society during their â€Å"coming out.† At every gathering of Victorian society the young ladies were chaperoned by their mothers or some other married woman so that nothing improper would happen that could ruin the young lady's reputation in society. The young ladies and gentlemen at the dances and balls were introduced through a third party and their Christian names were prohibited from being used because it would have been to forward and improper. After placing their name on the dance card of the young lady they could then proceed to dance no more then three dances because any more then that would be inappropriate in Victorian society. â€Å"After this formal introduction the gentleman would give the young lady his card to remember him by and at the end of the evening the young lady would look through her cards to see which gentleman she would allow to court her† (Powell). She would give the gentleman permission to court her by giving that gentleman her card and the right to call on her at her home where the courtship must take place. In Victorian society there were certain criteria that each party followed to find the perfect suitor. If they followed these rules to pick their mate their personal shortcomings would balance out when they married. Certain criteria consisted of â€Å"not marrying a person with the same eye color as yourself, marrying someone that was opposite of you in physical and mental characteristics, and marry someone with straight or thicker hair if your hair was curly or thin† (â€Å"Finding† 2). After a suitable suitor is chosen and the young lady and the gentleman begin to court certain rules must be followed. These rules were in place to keep the ladies pure until marriage. â€Å"The courting couple always had to be chaperoned, the couple needed permission to go out during the day, the gentleman could never stay late at the young lady's house, he could never call without permission and the young lady had to say goodbye at the parlor door† (â€Å"Love† 21). Because Victorian society was repressive towards true emotion, gentlemen and their ladies could not publicly express their love for one another.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Heat and Dust (Characters and Summary)

Heat and Dust (Characters and Summary) Heat and Dust Characters: 1923Olivia, Douglas, The Nawab, Mr. /Mrs. Crawford, Mr. /Mrs. Minnies, Harry, The Begum, Dr. SaundersPresent timeThe Narrator, Inder Lal, Chid, Maji, Dr. Gopal, Karim and Kitty, Ritu, Inder Lal’s mother Summary The narrator of the present went to India in order to find out her grandfather’s first wife– Olivia’s story. She gets to know the Indian officer Inder Lal, who sublets her a small room in Satipur and becomes a friend of his.While being more and more accepted in the Indian society and knowing more about the Indian culture, the narrator herself has been changed by India as well. The change of her is not only obvious by her outward appearance, some of her attitudes has been changed as well. She thinks the old sick beggar woman is dispensable and has hesitated to help her. On the other hand, she has helped Chid without hanging back, although he was also infected. The relationship between t he narrator and Inder Lal has developed as well. They became intimate and have a love affair, while Inder Lal’s wife, Ritu, was on the pilgrimage with his mother.They like to talk to each other in order to find out as much as possible about the Indian/western world, which is foreign to them. During the conversations, the narrator finds out that Inder Lal is not happy in his marriage with Ritu. She is not good educated and can not understand his thoughts. Inder Lal’s mother has chosen her to be his wife because of the compatibility of their families and her fair komplex. Olivia’s story is plotted in 1923. The narrator discovers her story by reading her letters to Marcia, her sister. Olivia could not speak Hindu nor Urdu, what made it difficult for her to find any Indian friends.Anyhow she never had the intention to be under Indians. She does not like the Crawfords and the Minnies. They are the contrast of her: They speak Hindu, know exactly which behaviour is exp ected and get along with all sorts of situations. Her only friends in India were Harry and the Nawab. After meeting each other the first time while the dinner party in the palace, the Nawab and Olivia kept meeting each other either in her home, or in his palace. The picnic at the Baba Firdau’s Shrine ended up with a love affair between the Nawab and Olivia.Olivia got pregnant and told both the Nawab and her husband Douglas about the pregnancy. Douglas had no idea that the child might be not his. Nevertheless the Begum, the mother of the Nawab, soon arranged an abortion for her, but the scandal was not to be hidden anymore. After the abortion, Olivia made her way to X, a small village in the foothills of the Himalayas. She maintained a house there and died in the 1950s. In the end the narrator, who is pregnant from Inder Lal, but has decided to keep the baby, also comes to X and rents a room in Olivia’s house.

How to be successful person?

Nowadays, there are many successful athletes, who dedicated their lives to be healthy, because inâ€Å"A Healthy Mind In a Healthy Bodyâ€Å". We all know that sports play an important role in our life, but to become a true sportsman one should possess the quality of head an heart We should take athletes as example for us, because of their courage and ambitions.. One of the most important quality of a sportsman is sportsman ship. Sportsman ship means the true spirit of taking part in sports. A sportsman should never use unfair means for personal gain.Sportsmen should strongly avert on eating fast food because fast food contains excess amount of fat and salt which is unfavourable and an obstacle to becoming a successful sportsman. An excellent sportsman incorporates many traits such as powerful physique, keen senses, discipline, calm and yet gregarious and outgoing. Enough sleep and rest is also a major requisite for becoming a successful sportsman. A sportsman also should have fore sight quick thinking, especially during the team play, for example football.As for me, becoming a successful sportsman just requires integrity and perseverance. If you want to be successful person in your live, you should have some important qualities in your character. In the world there are many successful persons in different area. For example, Margaret Thatcher was a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. She was the longest-serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century and is the only woman to have held the office.Margaret Thatcher was hard-working person, who very want to achieve her aim in life. No doubt, that in her character was qualities as determination, diplomacy, foresight, discipline. If you want to achieve success how Margaret Thatcher, you should also have quick thinking, power of persuasion. Another key to be success is in good education. If you study hard, you receive great result and big intellect, which help you have everything, that you want.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Biblical Criticisms

The Bible is unarguable the most circulated book of all books in the world. It has been translated to several languages in different versions. The book has been described as the world’s best and most widely distributed book by the Guinness Book of Record. The Bible has been read by more people and published in more languages than any other book in history. It was estimated that within the period of 1815-1975 alone, 2. 5 billion copies sold.Record has also shown us that at the end of 1993, the Bible has been fully translated into 337 different languages in the world while over 2,062 languages have translations of at least one book of the Bible. Due to its wide-spread influence, the Bible has been written by various Bible societies for easier comprehension and from their revelations. This has resulted in some textual difference in these various versions of the Bible.The question is how can the original meaning of scriptures that have divergent textual interpretations by these ve rsions be known? The answer to this is Biblical criticism. What then is Biblical Criticism? In its simplest form, this term is an umbrella term for the critical study and appraisal of textual, compositional and historical questions of Biblical scriptures without recourse to revelation. It uses the canon of reason rather than and historical principles in its study.Summarily, the query inquisition made in biblical criticism concerns the preservation and transmission of biblical text and scriptures, this includes the manuscripts in which the text has been preserved, the date, its setting, its relationship, and what the most reliable form of the text is; the source and composition of the text, together with when and where it was created, how, why, by whom, for whom, and in what situation it was created, what were the influence that were work when it was produced, and what sources were used in its composition; and the message of the text as expressed in its language, including the meanin g of the words as well as the way in which they are arranged in meaningful forms of expression. There are different forms of biblical criticisms. Some of them have been in existence as far back as eighteenth century. The major types of biblical criticism are form criticism, textual criticism, philological criticism, literary criticism, traditional criticism.There are also forms of biblical criticisms that have come to existence over the years. They are the literary approach, social-scientific criticism, cultural hermeneutics under which is canonical criticism. For the purpose of this essay, more attention will be drawn on the more recent form biblical criticism; the canonical criticism. Canonical criticism as the more recent form of biblical criticism is a form of cultural hermeneutic approach of biblical criticism that deals with the theological form of interpretation that puts into the center of its study the community background within which the text was produced and from which i t is to be read.It is a form of biblical criticism that deals with how scripture’s final form was created in the context of a believing community and how the interpretations produced by that final form continually guides the reading practices such community. Canonical criticism as a form of biblical criticism has greatly affected biblical study in our world today. As a theological form of biblical study, it preaches that we ought to read Scripture from a universal perspective and not individualistically but as part of a worshiping community of fellow believers. It also seeks a practical goal in that it entails reading the Scripture not just for academic or aesthetic reasons but in order to inhabit its narrative, to have our imagination converted to its values, and to promote love of God and neighbor. In addition to this, it serves as a historic framework.For canonical critics, we ought to read Scripture in conversation with previous generations of believers, especially those of the pre-modern period. Reference: †¢ Greenslade, S. L. , ed. â€Å"Cambridge History of the Bible†. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1963. †¢ Gurthrie, D. â€Å"Canon of Scripture†, In the New International Dictionary of the Christian Church†, Rev. ed. J. D. Douglas, ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1974. †¢ Kenyon, F. G. â€Å"Handbook to the textual Criticism of the New Testament†, London: Macmillan and Co. , 1901. †¢ Biblical criticism. (2008). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved March 28, 2008, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online: http://www. britannica. com/eb/article-9079097Back to top